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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro ( January commonly referred to simply as is the capital city of the State of Rio de the second largest city of and the third largest metropolitan and agglomeration in South America, approximately 6.3 million people the city proper, making it the 6th in the Americas, and 26th in the world. of the city has been designated as a Heritage Site, named de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes the Mountain a.

Peter Paul

Sir Peter Paul Rubens 28 1577 – 30 May 1640), was a Flemish painter, and a proponent of an extravagant style that emphasised colour, and sensuality. He is well-known for his altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and paintings of mythological and allegorical

In addition to running a large in Antwerp that produced popular with nobility and art throughout Europe, Rubens was a educated humanist scholar, art and diplomat who was knighted by both IV, King of Spain, and Charles I, of England.

Rubens and Isabella in the Honeysuckle Bower, 1609–10.

Early life

Rubens was in Siegen, Westphalia, to Jan Rubens and Pypelincks. His father, a Calvinist, and fled Antwerp for Cologne in after increased religious and persecution of Protestants during the of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Jan Rubens became the legal (and lover) of Anna of the second wife of William I of and settled at her court in Siegen in

Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of 1603, Museo del Prado, Painted during Rubens’s trip to Spain in 1603

Jan Rubens’ imprisonment for the affair, Paul Rubens was born in The family returned to Cologne the year. In 1589, two years his father’s death, Rubens with his mother to Antwerp, he was raised as a Catholic. Religion prominently in much of his work and later became one of the leading of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of (he had said “My passion comes the heavens, not from earthly

The Virgin and Child Adored by 1608, oil on slate and copper. is the central panel depicting The and Child Adored by Angels the High Altar, Santa in Vallicella, Rome.

In Antwerp, Rubens received a education, studying Latin and literature. By fourteen he began his apprenticeship withTobias Verhaeght. he studied under two of the city’s painters of the time, the late artists Adam van Noort and van Veen. Much of his earliest involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Holbein the Younger and Marcantonio engravings after Raphael. completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. as an independent master.

he Elevation of the 1610–11. Central panel. of Our Lady, Antwerp

Italy

In 1600, Rubens travelled to He stopped first in Venice, he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and before settling in Mantua at the of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubens’s painting, and his mature style was profoundly by Titian. With financial from the Duke, Rubens to Rome by way of Florence in 1601. he studied classical Greek and art and copied works of the Italian

Infanta Isabella Clara (1566–1633), 1615. Kunsthistorisches Vienna

the Hellenistic sculpture and his Sons was especially influential on as was the art of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da He was also influenced by the recent, naturalistic paintings by Caravaggio. He made a copy of that Entombment of Christ, recommended his patron, the Duke of Mantua, The Death of the Virgin (Louvre), and was in the acquisition of The Madonna of the Rosary Museum, Vienna) for the Dominican in Antwerp. During this stay in Rome, Rubens his first altarpiece commission, St. with the True Cross for the church of Santa Croce in

The Exchange of Princesses, from the de’ Medici Cycle. Louvre,

Rubens travelled to Spain on a mission in 1603, delivering from the Gonzagas to the court of III. While there, he the extensive collections of Raphael and that had been collected by II He also painted an equestrian of the Duke of Lerma during his (Prado, Madrid) that the influence of works like Charles V at Mühlberg (1548; Madrid). This journey the first of many during his that combined art and diplomacy.

Prometheus Bound, 1611–12. Museum of Art

He returned to Italy in where he remained for the next years, first in Mantua and in Genoa and Rome. In Genoa, painted numerous portraits, as the Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria Gallery of Art, Washington, and the portrait of Maria di Antonio Pallavicini, in a style that later paintings by Anthony van Joshua Reynolds and Thomas He also began a book the palaces in the city. From to 1608, he was mostly in Rome. this period Rubens with the assistance of Cardinal Serra (the brother of Pallavicini), his most important to date for the High Altar of the most fashionable new church, Maria in Vallicella also as the Chiesa Nuova.

The Fall of Man

The subject was to be St. Gregory the Great and local saints adoring an of the Virgin and Child. The first a single canvas (now at the des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble), was immediately by a second version on three panels that permits the miraculous holy image of the Maria in Vallicella” to be revealed on feast days by a removable cover, also painted by the

Rubens’ experiences in Italy to influence his work. He continued to many of his letters and correspondences in signed his name as “Pietro Rubens”, and spoke longingly of to the peninsula—a hope that materialized

The Massacre of the Innocents, c. Art Gallery of Ontario


Antwerp

Upon hearing of his mother’s in 1608, Rubens planned his from Italy for Antwerp. she died before he arrived His return coincided with a of renewed prosperity in the city the signing of Treaty of Antwerp in 1609, which initiated the Years’ Truce.

Venus at the 1615

In September of 1609 was appointed as court painter by VII, Archduke of Austria and Isabella Clara Eugenia of sovereigns of the Low Countries. He received permission to base his studio in instead of at their court in and to also work for other He remained close to the Archduchess until her death in 1633, and was upon not only as a painter but as an ambassador and diplomat. Rubens cemented his ties to the city on 3 October 1609, he married Brant, the daughter of a leading citizen and humanist, Jan Brant.

The Three Graces

In 1610, moved into a new house and that he designed. Now the Rubenshuis the Italian-influenced villa in the centre of accommodated his workshop, where he and his made most of the paintings, and his art collection and library, both the most extensive in Antwerp. this time he built up a with numerous students and

Diana Presenting the Catch to Pan National Museum of Serbia

His famous pupil was the young van Dyck, who soon became the Flemish portraitist and collaborated with Rubens. He also collaborated with the many active in the city, including the painter Frans Snyders who the eagle to Prometheus Bound below right), and his good the flower-painter Jan Brueghel the Elder.

Altarpieces such as The Raising of the (1610) and The Descent from the (1611–1614) for the Cathedral of Our Lady particularly important in establishing as Flanders’ leading painter after his return. The Raising of the for example, demonstrates the artist’s of Tintoretto’sCrucifixion for the Scuola Grande di San in Venice, Michelangelo’s dynamic and Rubens’s own personal style. painting has been held as a example of Baroque religious

Hippopotamus Hunt (1616). is known for the frenetic energy and ebullience of his paintings.

Rubens the production of prints and book especially for his friend Balthasar the owner of the large Plantin-Moretus house, to extend his fame Europe during this of his career. With the exception of a of brilliant etchings, he only drawings for these himself, the printmaking to specialists, such as Vorsterman.

Portrait of Hélène c. 1630s

He recruited a number of trained by Goltzius, who he carefully in the more vigorous style he He also designed the last woodcuts before the 19th revival in the technique. Rubens copyright for his prints, most in Holland, where his work was copied through prints. In he established copyrights for his work in France and Spain.

The Marie de’ Medici Cycle and missions (1621–1630)

Education of Medicci

In 1621, the Queen of France, Marie de’ Medici, Rubens to paint two large cycles celebrating her life and the of her late husband, Henry IV, for the Palace in Paris. The Marie de’ cycle (now in the Louvre) was in 1625, and although he began on the second series it was never Marie was exiled from in 1630 by her son, Louis and died in 1642 in the same in Cologne where Rubens had as a child.

The Château de Steen Hunter, c. 1635–8 (National London)

After the end of the Twelve Truce in 1621, the Spanish rulers entrusted Rubens a number of diplomatic missions In the French ambassador wrote Brussels: “Rubens is here to the likeness of the prince of Poland, by of the infanta” (Prince Władysław IV in Brussels as the personal guest of the on 2 September 1624).

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Between and 1630, Rubens’s diplomatic was particularly active, and he moved the courts of Spain and England in an to bring peace between the Netherlands and the United Provinces. He made several trips to the Netherlands as both an artist and a At the courts he sometimes encountered the that courtiers should not use hands in any art or trade, but he was also as a gentleman by many. It was during period that Rubens was knighted, first by Philip IV of in 1624, and then by Charles I of in 1630. He was awarded an honorary of Arts degree from University in 1629.

Assumption_of_the_Devine_and_Holy_Virgin_Mary

was in Madrid for eight months in In addition to diplomatic negotiations, he several important works for IV and private patrons. He also a renewed study of Titian’s copying numerous works the Madrid Fall of Man (1628–29). this stay, he befriended the painter Diego Velázquez and the two to travel to Italy together the year. Rubens, however, to Antwerp and Velázquez made the without him

The Adoration of the Magi

His stay in was brief, and he soon travelled on to where he remained until 1630. An important work this period is the Allegory of and War (1629; National Gallery, It illustrates the artist’s strong for peace, and was given to Charles I as a

While Rubens’s international with collectors and nobility continued to grow during decade, he and his workshop also to paint monumental paintings for patrons in Antwerp. The Assumption of the Mary (1625–6) for the Cathedral of is one prominent example.

The death of

Last decade (1630–1640)

last decade was spent in and Antwerp. Major works for patrons still occupied such as the ceiling paintings for the House at Inigo Jones’s of Whitehall, but he also explored personal artistic directions.

In 1630, four years the death of his first wife, the painter married 16-year-old Fourment. Hélène inspired the figures in many of his paintings the 1630s, including The Feast of (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), The Graces (Prado, Madrid) and The of Paris (Prado, Madrid). In the painting, which was made for the court, the artist’s young was recognized by viewers in the figure of In an intimate portrait of her, Fourment in a Fur Wrap, also as Het Pelsken (illustrated left), wife is even partially after classical sculptures of the Pudica, such as the Medici

self Portrait

In 1635, bought an estate outside of the Steen, where he spent of his time. Landscapes, such as his de Steen with Hunter Gallery, London) and Farmers from the Fields (Pitti Florence), reflect the more nature of many of his later He also drew upon the traditions of Pieter Bruegel the for inspiration in later works Flemish Kermis(c. 1630; Paris).

Earth and water

died from gout on 30 May He was interred in Saint Jacob’s Antwerp. The artist had eight three with Isabella and with Hélène; his youngest was born eight months his death.

Art

Rubens was a prolific artist. His works were mostly subjects, “history” paintings, included mythological subjects, and scenes. He painted portraits, of friends, and self-portraits, and in later painted several landscapes. designed tapestries and prints, as as his own house. He also oversaw the decorations of the Joyous Entry Antwerp by the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand in

Bacchus

His drawings are mostly forceful but not detailed; he also great use of oil sketches as preparatory He was one of the last major artists to consistent use of wooden panels as a medium, even for very works, but he used canvas as especially when the work to be sent a long distance. For he sometimes painted on slate to reflection problems.

Portrait of IV, 1624

His fondness of painting women gave rise to the ‘Rubensian’ or ‘Rubenesque’ for plus-sized The term ‘Rubensiaans’ is also used in Dutch to denote women.

Peace

Workshop

can be divided into three those he painted by himself, he painted in part (mainly and faces), and those he only He had, as was usual at the time, a workshop with many and students, some of whom, as Anthony Van Dyck, became in their own right. He also sub-contracted elements such as or still-life in large compositions to such as Frans Snyders, or artists such asJacob

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