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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro ( January commonly referred to simply as is the capital city of the State of Rio de the second largest city of and the third largest metropolitan and agglomeration in South America, approximately 6.3 million people the city proper, making it the 6th in the Americas, and 26th in the world. of the city has been designated as a Heritage Site, named de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes the Mountain a.

Peter Paul

Sir Peter Paul Rubens 28 1577 – 30 May 1640), was a Flemish painter, and a proponent of an extravagant style that emphasised colour, and sensuality. He is well-known for his altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and paintings of mythological and allegorical

In addition to running a large in Antwerp that produced popular with nobility and art throughout Europe, Rubens was a educated humanist scholar, art and diplomat who was knighted by both IV, King of Spain, and Charles I, of England.

Rubens and Isabella in the Honeysuckle Bower, 1609–10.

Early life

Rubens was in Siegen, Westphalia, to Jan Rubens and Pypelincks. His father, a Calvinist, and fled Antwerp for Cologne in after increased religious and persecution of Protestants during the of the Spanish Netherlands by the Duke of Jan Rubens became the legal (and lover) of Anna of the second wife of William I of and settled at her court in Siegen in

Equestrian Portrait of the Duke of 1603, Museo del Prado, Painted during Rubens’s trip to Spain in 1603

Jan Rubens’ imprisonment for the affair, Paul Rubens was born in The family returned to Cologne the year. In 1589, two years his father’s death, Rubens with his mother to Antwerp, he was raised as a Catholic. Religion prominently in much of his work and later became one of the leading of the Catholic Counter-Reformation style of (he had said “My passion comes the heavens, not from earthly

The Virgin and Child Adored by 1608, oil on slate and copper. is the central panel depicting The and Child Adored by Angels the High Altar, Santa in Vallicella, Rome.

In Antwerp, Rubens received a education, studying Latin and literature. By fourteen he began his apprenticeship withTobias Verhaeght. he studied under two of the city’s painters of the time, the late artists Adam van Noort and van Veen. Much of his earliest involved copying earlier works, such as woodcuts by Holbein the Younger and Marcantonio engravings after Raphael. completed his education in 1598, at time he entered the Guild of St. as an independent master.

he Elevation of the 1610–11. Central panel. of Our Lady, Antwerp


In 1600, Rubens travelled to He stopped first in Venice, he saw paintings by Titian, Veronese, and before settling in Mantua at the of Duke Vincenzo I Gonzaga. The and compositions of Veronese and Tintoretto had an effect on Rubens’s painting, and his mature style was profoundly by Titian. With financial from the Duke, Rubens to Rome by way of Florence in 1601. he studied classical Greek and art and copied works of the Italian

Infanta Isabella Clara (1566–1633), 1615. Kunsthistorisches Vienna

the Hellenistic sculpture and his Sons was especially influential on as was the art of Michelangelo, Raphael, and Leonardo da He was also influenced by the recent, naturalistic paintings by Caravaggio. He made a copy of that Entombment of Christ, recommended his patron, the Duke of Mantua, The Death of the Virgin (Louvre), and was in the acquisition of The Madonna of the Rosary Museum, Vienna) for the Dominican in Antwerp. During this stay in Rome, Rubens his first altarpiece commission, St. with the True Cross for the church of Santa Croce in

The Exchange of Princesses, from the de’ Medici Cycle. Louvre,

Rubens travelled to Spain on a mission in 1603, delivering from the Gonzagas to the court of III. While there, he the extensive collections of Raphael and that had been collected by II He also painted an equestrian of the Duke of Lerma during his (Prado, Madrid) that the influence of works like Charles V at Mühlberg (1548; Madrid). This journey the first of many during his that combined art and diplomacy.

Prometheus Bound, 1611–12. Museum of Art

He returned to Italy in where he remained for the next years, first in Mantua and in Genoa and Rome. In Genoa, painted numerous portraits, as the Marchesa Brigida Spinola-Doria Gallery of Art, Washington, and the portrait of Maria di Antonio Pallavicini, in a style that later paintings by Anthony van Joshua Reynolds and Thomas He also began a book the palaces in the city. From to 1608, he was mostly in Rome. this period Rubens with the assistance of Cardinal Serra (the brother of Pallavicini), his most important to date for the High Altar of the most fashionable new church, Maria in Vallicella also as the Chiesa Nuova.

The Fall of Man

The subject was to be St. Gregory the Great and local saints adoring an of the Virgin and Child. The first a single canvas (now at the des Beaux-Arts, Grenoble), was immediately by a second version on three panels that permits the miraculous holy image of the Maria in Vallicella” to be revealed on feast days by a removable cover, also painted by the

Rubens’ experiences in Italy to influence his work. He continued to many of his letters and correspondences in signed his name as “Pietro Rubens”, and spoke longingly of to the peninsula—a hope that materialized

The Massacre of the Innocents, c. Art Gallery of Ontario


Upon hearing of his mother’s in 1608, Rubens planned his from Italy for Antwerp. she died before he arrived His return coincided with a of renewed prosperity in the city the signing of Treaty of Antwerp in 1609, which initiated the Years’ Truce.

Venus at the 1615

In September of 1609 was appointed as court painter by VII, Archduke of Austria and Isabella Clara Eugenia of sovereigns of the Low Countries. He received permission to base his studio in instead of at their court in and to also work for other He remained close to the Archduchess until her death in 1633, and was upon not only as a painter but as an ambassador and diplomat. Rubens cemented his ties to the city on 3 October 1609, he married Brant, the daughter of a leading citizen and humanist, Jan Brant.

The Three Graces

In 1610, moved into a new house and that he designed. Now the Rubenshuis the Italian-influenced villa in the centre of accommodated his workshop, where he and his made most of the paintings, and his art collection and library, both the most extensive in Antwerp. this time he built up a with numerous students and

Diana Presenting the Catch to Pan National Museum of Serbia

His famous pupil was the young van Dyck, who soon became the Flemish portraitist and collaborated with Rubens. He also collaborated with the many active in the city, including the painter Frans Snyders who the eagle to Prometheus Bound below right), and his good the flower-painter Jan Brueghel the Elder.

Altarpieces such as The Raising of the (1610) and The Descent from the (1611–1614) for the Cathedral of Our Lady particularly important in establishing as Flanders’ leading painter after his return. The Raising of the for example, demonstrates the artist’s of Tintoretto’sCrucifixion for the Scuola Grande di San in Venice, Michelangelo’s dynamic and Rubens’s own personal style. painting has been held as a example of Baroque religious

Hippopotamus Hunt (1616). is known for the frenetic energy and ebullience of his paintings.

Rubens the production of prints and book especially for his friend Balthasar the owner of the large Plantin-Moretus house, to extend his fame Europe during this of his career. With the exception of a of brilliant etchings, he only drawings for these himself, the printmaking to specialists, such as Vorsterman.

Portrait of Hélène c. 1630s

He recruited a number of engravers by Goltzius, who he carefully schooled in the vigorous style he wanted. He designed the last significant before the 19th century in the technique. Rubens established for his prints, most significantly in where his work was widely through prints. In addition he copyrights for his work in England, and Spain.

The Marie de’ Medici and diplomatic missions (1621–1630)

of Marie Medicci

In 1621, the Mother of France, Marie de’ commissioned Rubens to paint two allegorical cycles celebrating her and the life of her late husband, IV, for the Luxembourg Palace in Paris. The de’ Medici cycle (now in the was installed in 1625, and although he work on the second series it was completed.[14] Marie was exiled France in 1630 by her son, XIII, and died in 1642 in the house in Cologne where had lived as a child.

The Château de with Hunter, c. 1635–8 Gallery, London)

After the end of the Years’ Truce in 1621, the Habsburg rulers entrusted with a number of diplomatic In 1624 the French ambassador from Brussels: “Rubens is to take the likeness of the prince of by order of the infanta” (Prince IV Vasaarrived in Brussels as the personal of the Infanta on 2 September 1624).

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1627 and 1630, Rubens’s career was particularly active, and he between the courts of Spain and in an attempt to bring peace the Spanish Netherlands and the United He also made several to the northern Netherlands as both an and a diplomat. At the courts he sometimes the attitude that courtiers not use their hands in any art or trade, but he was received as a gentleman by many. It was this period that was twice knighted, first by IV of Spain in 1624, and then by I of England in 1630. He was awarded an Master of Arts degree Cambridge University in 1629.

Rubens was in Madrid for eight in 1628–1629. In addition to diplomatic he executed several important for Philip IV and private patrons. He began a renewed study of paintings, copying numerous including the Madrid Fall of Man During this stay, he the court painter Diego and the two planned to travel to Italy the following year. Rubens, returned to Antwerp and Velázquez the journey without him

The Adoration of the Magi

His stay in was brief, and he soon travelled on to where he remained until 1630. An important work this period is the Allegory of and War (1629; National Gallery, It illustrates the artist’s strong for peace, and was given to Charles I as a

While Rubens’s international with collectors and nobility continued to grow during decade, he and his workshop also to paint monumental paintings for patrons in Antwerp. The Assumption of the Mary (1625–6) for the Cathedral of is one prominent example.

The death of

Last decade (1630–1640)

last decade was spent in and Antwerp. Major works for patrons still occupied such as the ceiling paintings for the House at Inigo Jones’s of Whitehall, but he also explored personal artistic directions.

In 1630, four years the death of his first wife, the painter married 16-year-old Fourment. Hélène inspired the figures in many of his paintings the 1630s, including The Feast of (Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna), The Graces (Prado, Madrid) and The of Paris (Prado, Madrid). In the painting, which was made for the court, the artist’s young was recognized by viewers in the figure of In an intimate portrait of her, Fourment in a Fur Wrap, also as Het Pelsken (illustrated left), wife is even partially after classical sculptures of the Pudica, such as the Medici

self Portrait

In 1635, bought an estate outside of the Steen, where he spent of his time. Landscapes, such as his de Steen with Hunter Gallery, London) and Farmers from the Fields (Pitti Florence), reflect the more nature of many of his later He also drew upon the traditions of Pieter Bruegel the for inspiration in later works Flemish Kermis(c. 1630; Paris).

Earth and water

Rubens died from on 30 May 1640. He was interred in Saint church, Antwerp. The artist had children, three with and five with Hélène; his child was born eight after his death.


Rubens was a artist. His commissioned works mostly religious subjects, paintings, which included subjects, and hunt scenes. He portraits, especially of friends, and and in later life painted landscapes. Rubens designed and prints, as well as his own house. He oversaw the ephemeral decorations of the Entry into Antwerp by the Ferdinand in 1635.


His are mostly extremely forceful but not he also made great use of oil as preparatory studies. He was one of the last artists to make consistent use of panels as a support medium, for very large works, but he canvas as well, especially the work needed to be sent a distance. For altarpieces he sometimes on slate to reduce reflection

Portrait of Władysław IV, 1624

His of painting full-figured women rise to the terms ‘Rubensian’ or for plus-sized women. The term is also commonly used in to denote such women.


Paintings can be divided three categories: those he by himself, those he painted in (mainly hands and faces), and he only supervised. He had, as was at the time, a large workshop many apprentices and students, of whom, such as Anthony Van became famous in their own He also often sub-contracted such as animals or still-life in compositions to specialists such as Snyders, or other artists asJacob Jordaens.

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