2009 MercedesBenz Experimental Safety Vehicle

19 Май 2015 | Author: | No comments yet »
Mercedes-Benz ESF 2009

(from Daimler Press Experimental Safety Vehicle

Structure: inflatable metal

It sounds like science-fiction: metallic structures that patiently in a collapsed, space-saving until they are required to go action. Daimler researchers together with the gas generator at Autoliv spent two years researching such active support systems, and tested a of applications. For the very first inflatable metal side protection can be seen in the ESF 2009.

an inflatable mattress. When it is not it is rolled up flat and e.g. to a shelf in the attic. When however, it has a highly resistant that can easily carry a man 100 kilograms. Inflatable metallic work in the same way: not in use, the metal section is together to save space. its protective effect is needed, a gas just like those to inflate airbags builds up an pressure of 10 to 20 bar within fractions of a the metal section is unfolded and the has significantly greater stability.

The are obvious, and mainly involve and weight: more

stable can be accommodated within the increasingly installation spaces of an automobile, or can be greatly reduced while the same stability. Using the of the side impact protection in the doors of the S-Class, the researchers calculated that around 500 less weight per door be feasible.

Daimler safety examined various applications for innovative, crash-responsive metal among them side protection, the side skirts and the cross-members. These have the of being several centimetres from the impact zone. The gas therefore only needs to be when a crash has definitely place.

One of the still unsolved of these protective members is unlike the PRE-SAFE® measures in series production, their deformation is not reversible. Moreover, the of protective members installed to the outside of the bodyshell that can be by internal pressure requires deployment before the crash. The sensor system must provide highly reliable

Another hurdle is the currently uncompetitive cost level of the gas generators in relation to the cost for weight-saving measures. These metal structures are therefore a thing of the future – but the same was once true of standard features like the airbag, ABS or

Braking Bag: a braking for the car

Airbags in cars have only been used as a system for the occupants. In the future might also be a PRE-CRASH- activating an auxiliary brake in the floor and improving both and compatibility with the other involved in the accident.

Energy is not reducible by braking the road jet fighters and dragsters use braking for example. And as early as 1952, was already experimenting with an at the Le Mans race: when the driver was able to move a panel on the roof of his racing SL to a position. Even earlier, used special wheel These were placed in of one of both rear wheels on downhill gradients, and their base helped to brake the during the descent.

This is an old that Mercedes safety have revitalised on a similar with the Braking Bag, an installed between the front carrier and the underbody panelling. If the system concludes that an is inevitable, the PRE-SAFE® system not initiates automatic emergency At the same time the Braking Bag is just before the crash, the car against the road surface by of a friction coating. The vehicle’s acceleration increases the friction and has an braking effect before the The Braking Bag uses the PRE-CRASH in Mercedes-Benz cars, which are able to initiate preventive protection measures in critical situations.

There are several advantages to unusual auxiliary brake:

The rate of deceleration is briefly to over 20 m/sec/sec. This additional energy beyond the of a wheel brake, thereby accident severity.

— the car is raised upwards by up to eight within a short time, the effect that occurs conventional brakes is substantially This improves geometrical with the other party in an

— This vertical also improves the effects of the systems: the seats move the occupants by around three which enables the belt to take up more slack. The deceleration rate before the has a pretensioning effect on the occupants, so to

— Downward support for the during the crash reduces the diving motion during a

All in all, the braking airbag has the of an additional crumple zone. engineers have calculated even at a low 50 km/h, the additional has the same effect as lengthening the end by 180 mm. Initial driving tests in a have already shown the of this new auxiliary brake – it will still be some before the Braking Bag becomes component of the PRE-SAFE® system.

Vehicle Communication: cars what their sensors detected

Cars sometimes more about their than their drivers. the help of intelligent communication vehicles themselves are able to to improved road safety and

A patch of black ice on the next A bank of fog three kilometres the road? A new traffic tailback roadworks are being carried What used to come as an surprise is far less frightening if the driver receives an up-to-date is beforehand. This is a task will in future be carried out by the vehicles on the roads at the time – by radio. This is the basic behind Interactive Vehicle

Cars are nowadays able to a great deal of information the current driving situation, as the sensors, cameras and control for the dynamic and assistance systems can e.g. poor weather just as well as sudden and avoiding manoeuvres, or broken-down on the road. There are also sources of information, for example police reports. This can be passed on via additional relay (car-to-x) such as radio at the roadside, stationary nodal (e.g. traffic centres and gantries) or via the internet. The onboard classifies all the reports according to and relevance. Tailback reports on the which are out-of-date or irrelevant to the driver will then be a of the past.

Mercedes engineers been working on Interactive Communication as a technology of the future for than seven years. The ESF safety concept vehicle the current status of this this Mercedes can automatically an approaching police car, for and warn its driver by showing a in the display. It is also possible to and receive warnings of bad weather or in the road.

The exchange of data vehicles is via so-called ad hoc networks, that are spontaneously formed the vehicles over short These wireless local networks (WLANs) are self-organising, and no external infrastructure. Transmission and is at a frequency of 5.9 gigahertz, over a of up to 500 metres. In fact the achievable range is much greater, as vehicles pass the messages on.

that communicate with other can do more than pass on information: linked to proximity control systems as DISTRONIC Plus from they can help to harmonise the flow and avoid tailbacks by selecting the most suitable speed when joining a And collisions can be avoided if onboard recognise an impending accident and regulate the distance.

This technology is currently its practicality in the Safe Intelligent – Test area Germany (simTD), in which Mercedes-Benz and German manufacturers and suppliers are part. Up to 400 vehicles communicate each other in these, the largest field trials for Vehicle Communication. simTD is conducted in the densely populated area from autumn to 2012. Experts expect mobile information networks full coverage to become a when around ten percent of all have this communications

PRE-SAFE Pulse: an automatic in the ribs

With the multiple PRE-SAFE® system, Mercedes-Benz has again been underlining its as a pioneer in the safety field 2002: once the system certain critical driving PRE-SAFE® activates occupant measures as a precaution. As a further PRE-SAFE Pulse is able to the loads acting on the torsos of the by around one third during a impact by preventively moving towards the centre of the vehicle.

Out of way – every millimetre counts an accident. When an impending collision is recognised, PRE-SAFE as an active restraint system the driver and front passenger the centre of the vehicle, using air in the side bolsters of the seat If the onboard sensors report a side impact is inevitable, are inflated within fractions of a and give the seat occupants a nudge in the ribs. This is enough to move them out of the zone by up to 50 millimetres. Even the accident, it also accelerates the occupant in the direction he/she later take during the This reduces the loads on the occupant during the impact. The does not need to be replaced or when this preventive system has been activated, as Pulse is reversible.

PRE-SAFE is being developed on the basis of the multicontour seat in the new Mercedes Depending on the steering angle, acceleration and speed, the inflation and volume of the air chambers in the side of the seat backrests are already to give the driver and front even better lateral

Partial main beam: beam ahead at all times

as brake lights and indicators in Mercedes models, or as daytime lights in the new E and S-Class, LED lighting is seeing increasing use at Mercedes-Benz. And will be brightening up at night as in future: Mercedes lighting are working on an adaptive LED main system that automatically oncoming traffic from the of light. A special spotlight also allows potential to receive additional illumination.

beam, low beam, main anybody travelling on country in western Europe at night is able to drive with the beams on for very long. The of oncoming traffic dictates the driver is soon obliged to to low beam, either manually or conveniently using the Main Assist in the new Mercedes E-Class. is not enough to satisfy the researchers at however. Because during the when the driver switches to low — with its shorter — to avoid dazzling it is possible to overlook other users or potential hazards.

The specialists at Mercedes-Benz are therefore on an LED-based adaptive main system. This enables the to leave the main beams on constantly. As soon as the system oncoming traffic with the of a camera, it automatically adjusts the distribution accordingly. The Mercedes ESF experimental safety vehicle precisely how this works. A is made up of 100 LEDs. These elements can be individually activated, so when there is oncoming the precise beam area in other road users are can be darkened down. The system these using an infrared The purely electronic module is able to respond much than present electro-mechanical assemblies.

The light distribution can also be in the opposite direction: a special function in the LED array of the research also enables potential to be highlighted. If the infrared camera pedestrians in the road ahead, for they can be briefly lit up beyond the main beam illumination, as if by an spotlight. The driver is thus to the potential danger.

Reflect: not all are grey at night

Reflective on the body and tyres could improve the lateral visibility of and help to avoid accidents at junctions.

Reflective materials long been commonplace in clothing, and in the case of bicycles it is mandatory to have reflectors in the spokes. So the engineers at Mercedes-Benz themselves why the perceptual safety of could not be improved in the same Accordingly the ESF 2009 research car appropriate reflective elements viewed from the side. modifications are not visible during the but the additional benefit shows up dusk and darkness fall.

with the manufacturer Continental, specialists have developed a strip on the tyres which enlarges the wheels in daylight and an easily visible band of when illuminated at night. As a safety feature there are seals between the doors and the a joint development with the foil specialist 3M. The aim is to make the silhouette more easily in the dark. This enables accident situations on junctions or in the of unlit, parked vehicles to be

Reflective foils consist if a base layer with balls of glass. When a ray of hits the foil, it is refracted by the balls, reflected by the base and refracted again on exiting. As a most of the light is reflected in its original direction.

Belt a clever combination of a seat and airbag

The seat belt is as one of the most important inventions of the Century, and has saved countless It has been further improved belt tensioners and belt limiters, but that is not the end of its development: an extension to the width of the belt, as a Belt Bag, is able to the risk of injury even in an accident.

When a seat limits the movement of its wearer’s as intended during a collision, it the body to considerable forces. The Bag, on whose development is working intensively with the belt specialist Autoliv, doubles its width within of a second during an accident. increase in the width of the belt the pressure over a wider thereby reducing the risk of This is particularly beneficial for passengers, whose ribcage is no so flexible.

As the name suggests, the Bag is a combination of a seat belt and When the crash sensors a serious impact, the airbag unit activates the Belt A generator at the belt armature the double-layered belt, which has seams. The volume of the Belt Bag is four litres. The developers the Belt Bag to deliver the greatest in the rear of the car, where airbags cannot be installed. It is conceivable that the Belt Bag be used here by Mercedes-Benz in the future.

Child Protect System: and comfort for very small

Mercedes engineers have about how children might even more safely in a

The two major advantages of the Mercedes study Child Protect over conventional child seats are an improved protective and greater comfort for the child. is accompanied by a high level of and attractive visual integration of the into the interior of Mercedes This system jointly with the restraint system Takata is suitable for children between three and 12 years categories II and III). One special is its modular construction, as the height and can be individually adapted to the child’s proportions.

Child Protect has a tubular frame construction. design offers better and greater rigidity than of moulded plastic during a impact. The prominent side in the shoulder and head area the child in place and minimise movement during an accident. At the time they prevent the from coming into with vehicle components into the interior, or with the in the adjacent seat. This study, which is approved to the ECE R44.04 standard, is also with automatic, sensor-controlled deactivation on the front passenger

As an additional benefit, Mercedes are considering the addition of a buggy to the child seat. This also ensure that travel in comfort, style and outside the car.

PRE-SAFE full emergency braking an impact

With the multiple PRE-SAFE® system, Mercedes-Benz has again been underlining its as a pioneer in the safety field 2002: once the system certain critical driving PRE-SAFE® activates occupant measures as a precaution. As a further PRE-SAFE 360° monitors not the areas to the side, but also to the of the vehicle.

PRE-SAFE 360° short-range or multi-mode sensors to the area behind the vehicle to a of up to 60 metres. If the accident early-warning registers that a collision is the brakes are applied around 600 before the impact. If the already car is braked during a rear-end this not only prevents accidents where the car is e.g. shunted into a road or onto a pedestrian crossing. The of possible whiplash injuries to the can also be reduced by application of the as the vehicle and therefore its occupants less forward acceleration. The always has the final decision PRE-SAFE 360°, however: if he because he is able to prevent the collision by moving forward, for the brakes are instantly released.

to the widely held opinion drivers, it does not make to take one’s foot off the pedal before an impending collision. The correct action be to apply the brakes as hard as however accident research show that the driver of a vehicle impacted from the is moved backwards by up to 20 centimetres. inevitably causes his feet to from the pedals.

The protective of PRE-SAFE 360° supports of the NECK-PRO crash-responsive head which are already standard in many Mercedes model If the sensor system detects a collision with a defined severity, it releases pre-tensioned inside the head restraints, the head restraints to move by about 40 millimetres and upwards by 30 within a matter of milliseconds. means that the heads of the and front passenger are supported at an stage than with head restraints.

The 1980 S-Class (W 126) was the first production car

equipped with an In the meantime airbags have established themselves across all segments. Airbags have many human lives and the severity of injuries. Mercedes specialists are now working on a further to their protective effect by airbags with a variable

There are already adaptive at Mercedes-Benz today, for in many series the airbags are activated in two depending on the assessed severity of the Future generations of this system will not only accident severity into but adapt themselves to the individual occupants: Size Adaptive automatically adjust their to the seating position and stature of the passenger as recognised by the sensors. For a small front passenger is up close to the dashboard or a tall passenger has his seat moved back is certainly a factor in the effect of the airbag. The weight of the passenger, and therefore the forces on the airbag during an accident, are important.

Size Adaptive enable occupant contact the airbag to be optimally timed, his weight and seating position. The system can therefore dampen the to optimum effect. This development varies the volume on the passenger side between 90 and 150 For purposes of comparison, conventional passenger airbags have a of around 120 litres.

The system three retaining bands which the airbag contours are to limit the volume. The retaining are fitted on electrically driven When the airbag is activated, as much band length is as the control unit has calculated on the of sensor data for the seating and weight of the occupant.

Rear camera: keeping an eye on the kids

the help of a small camera, will in future be able to children travelling in the rear control without taking eyes off the road. Mum, keeps pulling my hair! seat belt isn’t fastened. — Parents that when the kids are on there is usually no shortage of on the rear seats. But if the driver back to see what is going on, is a risk of an accident. Accordingly safety experts have Rear seat camera, a camera system that the kids to be observed without one’s eyes off the road.

A camera is mounted on the roof behind the front seats. If its images can be transferred to the dashboard – not in video form, but as sequences of to avoid distraction. The camera provides a slight bird’s-eye which allows children in child seats to be observed easily.

Rear seat also shows rear that are not easy for the driver to e.g. the seat directly And in the case of an estate car, SUV or it is also possible to monitor the compartment. This is very if domestic pets are on board, for

Interseat Protection: don’t get too to me

Danger not only comes outside during an accident. In cases even passengers their seat belts can into contact and injure other. Interseat Protection in seat rows helps to this.

Mercedes safety are presenting two proposed solutions in one Interseat Protection: a protective for the driver/front passenger and one for the rear-seat As a common feature of both, the are physically separated from other if the PRE-SAFE® system an accident. Within fractions of a a lattice-like airbag support extends from between the seats to keep the driver and passenger apart. A seat-mounted like this has the advantage the protective barrier adapts to the position of the front seats.

The position does not need to be into account in the rear, a protective pad located above the armrest is used when an is detected. This pad helps to the two passengers in the rear from each other. When the pad is at it can be activated as part of PRE-SAFE®. fractions of a second, the seat emerges and the two head supports are

Mercedes accident research has that during a side and also during a rollover, the of the passengers move along paths: around 50 milliseconds the accident, the head of the person the impact changes the direction of its movement towards the centre of the – impelled by the sidebag and head A second important finding these analyses is that a between the passengers can only be if the torso is supported. The protective pad of the Protection system is dimensioned

In normal cases the protective pad in the is more of an innovative comfort the pad is designed to be extended by the passengers at the of a button, when it can be used as a and shoulder support for a comfortable position. It would also be to use the space for stowage or a cooler or an entertainment console.

Hybrid Shield: seven-stage safety

A drive train with technology lowers fuel and CO2 emissions. At the same time introduces high-voltage electricity and battery systems into car engineering, however. Thanks to long experience with cell technology, Mercedes engineers are extremely well for the new challenges this presents. A seven-stage safety concept is the

The challenge lay in not only complying all the worldwide and in-house crash requirements, but also in ensuring the possible safety for the electrical This safety system applies in production, includes personnel during servicing and and also takes the emergency into account when need to be recovered following an The seven-stage concept in detail:

1. In the stage all the wiring is colour-coded to confusion, and all components are marked safety instructions. This the regular technical inspections to carry out.

2. The second comprises comprehensive contact for the entire system by means of insulation and newly developed, connectors.

3. As part of the third the lithium-ion battery has been a whole package of carefully safety measures. This battery is accommodated in a high-strength housing, and also secured in Bedding the battery cells in a gel effectively dampens any jolts and There is also a blow-off with a rupture disc and a cooling circuit. An internal controller continuously monitors the requirements and immediately signals any

4. The fourth stage of the safety includes separation of the battery individual safety-wiring for all high-voltage and continuous monitoring by multiple switches. This means all high-voltage components are connected by an loop. In the event of a malfunction the system is automatically switched

5. Active discharging of the high-voltage as soon as the ignition is switched to or in the event of a malfunction, is part of the stage.

6. During an accident, the system is completely switched off fractions of a second.

7. As the seventh and stage, the system is continuously for short circuits.


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