Electricity and Cars | Electric Vehicles

17 Мар 2015 | Author: | No comments yet »
Mercedes-Benz BlueZero E-Plus Cell

Electricity and Cars

(Updated 2014)

Electric vehicles and electric vehicles which are to be charged from mains have potential to greatly the demand for base-load power grid systems

Development of depends critically on battery

The best-known hybrid cars are simply a step on the way to plug-in which will get most of power from the grid, and widespread use of full electric

As outlined in the paper on Transport and the Economy. nuclear power is to road transport and motor in three respects:

Hybrid and electric vehicles potentially use power from the grid for (but generally do not yet do so). is electromobility .

Nuclear heat can be for production of liquid hydrocarbon from coal.

Hydrogen for oil and for fuel cell vehicles may be electrolytically, and in the future, thermochemically high-temperature reactors.

An international Vehicles Initiative was launched in 2010 at the Paris Motor by a consortium including the OECD Energy Agency (IEA) and countries: China, France, Japan, South Africa, Sweden and the United States. It to achieve rapid market of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles (EV/PHEVs) around the targeting about 20 million EVs and on the road by 2020. According to the this target would put EV/PHEV stock on a trajectory to 200 million by 2030, and one billion by This trajectory is a key element for the global economy to achieve the IEA Blue Map scenario target of of CO2 emissions in 2050 compared 2005 levels.

In 2012 120,000 EV PHEVs were worldwide. (US sales were and in 2013 to May: 32,305. figures are around half World total passenger car were 66.7 million in Chinese government has a target of 500,000 EV and PHEVs on the road by

The BP Energy Outlook 2035 in January 2014 said By 2035, sales of conventional fall to a quarter of total while hybrids dominate hybrids 23%, mild – with minor electrical – 44%). Plug-in vehicles, full battery electric (EVs), are forecast to make up 7% of in 2035. Plug-ins have the to switch to oil for longer distances and are to be preferred to BEVs, based on economics and consumer attitudes range limitations. (p47)

Electromobility: cars

Hybrid vehicles are powered by batteries and an combustion (IC) engine. may be parallel hybrid technology, both batteries and/or propelling the vehicle (with controls), or series hybrids, the engine simply charging the Both types may be capable of to mains electricity from the in which case they much larger battery For the series hybrid the engine is used only when so it can run at optimum speed and efficiency. Battery are typically 10-20 kWh for PHEVs and kWh for EVs/BEVs.

Higher capital of hybrids is offset by the prospect of lower running costs and emissions. Better batteries allow greater use of electricity in and will also mean charging them can be done mains power, as well as the motor and regenerative braking. plug-in electric hybrid (PHEV) and a new generation of full vehicles (EVs) are practical and on the of being economic today.

The motors are generally synchronous, a permanent magnet in the rotor. The rotating magnetic field an electromagnetic torque on the rotor, it to spin in synch with the field. As permanent magnets improved greatly due to the incorporation of motors have become and more compact. However, require cooling, with fan, water pump,

Some manufacturers use asynchronous AC motors which do not require the permanent magnets (nor neodymium). Here the rotor has sets of windings so that it a rotating magnetic field chases the stator’s rotating generating torque. The induction tolerates a wider range of than the synchronous motor, and is and rugged. The Tesla and Mini E use these motors, and Toyota is to be moving that way. generally need no conventional gearbox, since the motor even at high loads overheating.

Towards Electromobility: and efficiency

Widespread use of PHEVs and EVs get much or all of their energy the electricity grid overnight at rates will increase demand modestly – in the order of More importantly it will that a significantly greater of a country’s electricity can be generated by plant and hence at lower cost. Where the plant is it will also be emission-free.

are starting to emerge between utilities and automotive companies in of wider use of PHEVs and EVs in Europe. them is more of a challenge than in USA because most are not garaged overnight so must be elsewhere, often more In 2007 EdF and Toyota set up a collaborative in France using PHEVs below), and in 2008 RWE and Daimler an EV trial in Berlin involving 100 The French trial was then to UK, with 50 EdF staff vehicles Daimler has Smart EVs on test in Part of the corporate collaboration to how users are billed, as well as how the are recharged.

Nissan has been alliances with local and infrastructure companies in several so as to commercialise its electric cars. In 2010 it announced that it initially build the Nissan EV in UK, investing £420 million and a government grant of £20.7 towards the battery plant and car

In March 2010, Nissan, and Toyota, with Tepco and Heavy Industries announced an to establish a standardised technology in for charging electric vehicles, a view to making this The CHAdeMO Association expects to 158 members including government and 20 foreign companies …. such as electric utilities, charger charging service providers, and supporting groups. Nissan has selected AeroVironment to supply EV charging stations in the USA for its Leaf EV December 2010. These fully recharge the battery 220 volts in eight hours.

In May the Japanese government commenced a of Nissan EV taxis with Better Place, based on battery swaps in the Tokyo area, and with a view to some 300 battery-swap stations As of August 2010, 40,000 km had logged by three taxis 2122 battery swaps 59 seconds.

In September 2010 a involving 20 PHEVs and 200 charging in Munich was announced, with E.On. Stadtwerke Muenchen and the University of Munich. The e-tron supplied by Audi have a 75 kW and a 50 km radius before needing from either plug or the Wankel motor. The German Ministry of Transport is supporting the and expects to have one million on the road by 2020.

In October EdF announced partnerships with Citroen and also the Renault-Nissan related to EVs and PHEVs. The former on recharging systems and protocols, the on creating a large-scale zero-emissions transport system based on EdF claimed already to operate the largest fleet of EVs – 1500 and is now developing a new generation of innovative stations. (Peugot Citroen has formed a partnership with to produce and market EVs, and with BMW for hybrids.)

Ford, in with the US Electric Power Institute (EPRI), is undertaking a test program on the Ford PHEV to develop and evaluate approaches for integrating PHEVs the electric grid. EPRI has nine utilities across America to test drive the and collect data on battery vehicle systems, customer use and infrastructure. In August 2009 unveiled an intelligent system, one of the world’s first vehicle-to-electric that will communicate PHEVs for optimal battery

Volkswagen is pushing forward EVs and series PHEVs, along the Nissan-Renault and others. (It sees cell vehicles as a pipedream.)

In Mercedes Benz/Smart and Enel are in an e-mobility Italy initiative involves setting up an intelligent of 100 public and 50 private charging around Rome and putting an 100 Smart EVs on the road there. claims that travelling a distance in an electric car requires 40% less primary energy in an equivalent petrol vehicle.

In the UK the is subsidising the purchase of EVs and PHEVs 2011, and also the provision of municipal charging points by the end of 2000 of these being charge (80% in 20 minutes). To cars will need a of 112 km, a top speed of at least 96 km/h and to EU safety standards. Nissan and Ecotricity had 97 EV charging points in UK to August

Connection standards, EV charging

The International Electrotechnical Commission has produced an international standard charging modes and relevant connectors for EVs and PHEVs – IEC 62196. The American standard SAE J1772 and the standard VDE-AR-E-2623-2-2 broadly with this.

In April the European Commission tabled a for Clean Energy-Efficient Vehicles. included promoting common to allow all electric vehicles to be anywhere in the EU, allowing changeover of batteries, encouraging the installation of charging points, and research on of batteries.

In June 2010 the Automobile Manufacturers Association defined joint specifications to EVs to the grid, enabling the relevant EU bodies to progress towards a common interface between the infrastructure and vehicles throughout The recommendations will also public authorities that are investments in public charging The joint specifications cover of passenger cars and light vehicles, both at home and at charging spots. During a period, customers will be to use the different plugs already on the A uniform solution is expected to standard for all new vehicle types by The industry expects to make for quick charging and heavy-duty See European Automobile Manufacturers’ (ACEA) website (www.acea.be ).

Vehicle to Grid – V2G

A further of EVs’ interaction with systems is the potential for parked to contribute to the grid to compensate for due to intermittent renewable supplies. is known as V2G and will enable EV when not actually charging to sell electricity back to the when needed for stabilization of will mean that the layer of the grid becomes a exchange network, analogous to a LAN. Considerable development is to bring this into and current charging standards do not allow for it.

In the USA, NRG Energy has set up a (eV2g) with the University of and grid operator PJM Interconnect to the potential, as transmission networks increasingly reliant on fluctuating energy sources such as and solar. However, V2G requires owners to in habitually rather than when they need a battery cycles will with effect on their and there may be implications for vehicle also.

Demand and efficiency

The Royal Academy of Engineering said that Results electric vehicle trials that EVs equivalent to a small or diesel four-seat car use around 0.2 in normal city traffic. figures are about 0.15 for a one-tonne vehicle.

With EVs or mains electrical usage PHEVs of 20,000 km per year, would use 3-4 MWh/yr, so for each ten cars thus depending on the an extra 30-40 TWh would be mostly off-peak.

Comparing the use of to make hydrogen for fuel cars with using it for EVs, there is a two- to advantage in the latter. Comparing use of gas in an internal combustion engine using it to generate electricity for there is a clear advantage in the

Analysis by the Energy Supply of Australia (ESAA) found an equivalent litre of electricity, or could cost from 37 off-peak up to 62 cents with prices. It found that cars have the equivalent costs of approximately 3 cents per compared to 10 cents per kilometre for cars.

Towards Electromobility: effects

Using traditional impact assessment methods in 25 cities with 39 million the EC-funded Aphekom project in showed that present air levels, mainly from traffic, resulted in 19,000 per year. It estimated that the health benefits of complying the World Health Organisation for particulate matter would some EUR 31.5 billion Some cities were times the 10 µg/m 3 WHO guideline for PM 2.5 particles.

Hybrid electric

Hybrid electric vehicles been on the market for several and are now fairly sophisticated and reliable, and are in high demand. However, hybrids still depend on liquid fuels, while regenerative braking to increase London has a fleet of 56 experimental buses, and from 2012 all new there were to be hybrids.

have a battery which is by an internal combustion (IC) (as well as regenerative braking), and in or parallel, hybrids the drive may be both or either. They much enhanced fuel though figures suggest there is little advantage efficient diesel motors in use. Their advantage is in driving, and their significance is as an important step towards hybrid vehicles.

The Toyota is the best-known hybrid car of this The Mk3 version has a 1.8 litre, 73 kW engine, a 10 kW AC a very small battery* and a 60 kW AC electric motor, all with power electronics and controls. The cost is about 30% more a comparable conventional vehicle. has a larger full-hybrid vehicle, the SUV.

* The nickel metal (NiMH) battery pack is 6.5 Ah at volts (1.34 kWh) 27 kW and had an eight-year/160,000 km warranty (expected is quoted at 240,000 km). The mass was originally 45 kg but reduced to 29 kg in the model. From 2009 the was to be lithium-ion type, but NiMH was retained in Mk3. The range on is very small however.

has a different hybrid system, Motor Assist (IMA), nickel metal hydride charged (in the Civic and new Insight by a 1300cc engine. The batteries assist acceleration via a thin 10 or 20 kW motor/generator between the 60 kW engine and Unlike Toyota and Ford IMA cannot function to any extent on battery power. The whole has an eight-year warranty. This is an example of is called a ‘mild hybrid’ where there is minor assistance to the IC motor, and little capacity.

Ford has several models. The Escape Hybrid was in 2004. Like others, it an Electronically Controlled Continuously Transmission or eCVT to allow the of power between the 2.5 litre combustion engine and the main motor to be determined by driving so that the engine is shut off the electric motor can provide power to run it. It has a 1.8 kWh nickel metal battery pack. By March some 100,000 Escape had been produced.

In New York, have run a trial with 375 Escape hybrid vehicles and are planning to convert the whole of 13,000 from 2014, ten years (with replacements this period). A four-year for design came down to finalists: Karsan Otomoyiv V1 Turkey, Nissan NV200, and Transit Connect (petrol or possibly EV). In May 2011 the NV200 was chosen, deferring for EV or PHEVs, though Nissan to participate in an EV pilot program and one said that Nissan is to manufacture the NV200 as an EV, starting in New York also has about hybrid buses.

London’s buses are from four one of which is BAE Systems, which has now 2700 HybriDrive systems for mostly in North America. are series hybrids, now with batteries. In Europe, Siemens is hybrid drive systems for

Further interesting hybrid, and EV designs are in the Appendix below.

The (non plug-in) hybrid battery simply stores braking energy, helps acceleration, and provides a very amount of low-speed electric

Plug-in Hybrid Electric (PHEV)

A further stage of the EV technology is plug-in hybrid-electric (PHEVs) or gasoline-optional hybrid-electric with a much larger than the hybrids described and drawing most of their at least for short trips, the electricity grid via the batteries than from liquid (Incidentally, in some systems may also supply power to the grid when they are in.) However, in contrast to the where the small battery is kept topped up, PHEVs full electric vehicles) to be capable of repeated deep

As with plain hybrids, are two basic concepts with parallel and series. The parallel is like the Prius and Ford with drive from battery or IC motor or both. The PHEV such as the original GM simply used the motor to the battery. With larger this becomes an EV with extender engine. A Mitsubishi has both series and parallel

* A Prius conversion to effective requires about 9 kWh in battery and the initial PHEV version of the has about 16 kWh so that the engine a range-extender largely to charge the with the GM E-Flex system. In 2007 Toyota obtained for testing on road of a plug-in of the Prius, the first small to be certified thus, though had a small fleet of PHEV under test. In mid-2010 EdF and announced that 20 Prius with lithium-ion batteries be leased for a three-year test in London, these having 20 km range, hence apparently than 6 kWh battery capacity. EdF provide charging points at on-street and domestic locations. Prius PHEVs are on the market March 2012 in USA. claims an extended EV mode new 4.4 kWh, 80 kg Li-ion battery delivering 650 volts maximum and a range of 25km. Charge is three hours from 15 amp 120 household system, or half the with 240 volts. The engine is the as normal Mk3 Prius.

With a lot of driving, particularly short can be in battery-only mode, hence on-road emissions. They can overall petrol/gasoline consumption by like 30 to 50 percent, but will most of the difference as electrical – predominantly from the grid. consumption is variously quoted at 0.16 kWh per kilometre but requiring 50% capacity than power (IEA 2008), to 0.3 kWh/km per mass.

A PHEV with 16 kWh giving 30 km range cuts consumption greatly, given many cars do not travel more than this though the nickel metal battery pack can weigh or five times as much as the normal one. Several Mk2 3 Prius cars in the USA have modified to be PHEVs. The electrical (mains power to wheels) in is about 75-80%, or 25-30% from primary heat.

Chevrolet Volt or Ampera (in started off as a series PHEV, 16 kWh battery pack giving 65 km range. The Volt was essentially an vehicle with on-board 1.4 IC engine as range extender, to the 175 kg battery pack when it is but it become more sophisticated and is now a parallel hybrid. The battery the 112 kW electric motor driving the wheels. The 55 kW IC generator either the battery to drive the wheels, or the battery, and can run as a motor. In one mode the IC can contribute propulsion directly the planetary gear system.

The platform permits the Volt to as a pure battery electric until its battery capacity has depleted to a defined level, at time it commences to operate as a hybrid design where the IC drives the generator, which the battery at minimum level and provides power to the electric (The full charge of the is replenished only from an grid.) While in this mode at higher speeds and the IC engine can engage mechanically to the from the transmission and assist electric motors to drive the in which case the Volt as a power-split or series-parallel hybrid.

Full charging from takes about 4 hours on 240 with 16 amps and 8 hours on 110 GM is promoting the vehicle as an extended-range vehicle rather than hybrid. In Europe it is called the The Volt/Amepra has been on sale in USA the end of 2010 at $40,000. In the UK its price is about 40% more. Due to its popularity in GM planned to produce 16,000 of in 2012 but eventually sold than 20,000.The battery has an km warranty.

The Chinese BYD (build dreams) F3DM, F6DM and are plug-in hybrid vehicles (DM = mode). They use lithium-ion phosphate batteries and have panels on the roof to help The F3DM sedan claims to be the first mass-produced PHEV, on to the public since March It has two permanent-magnet AC synchronous electric powered by a 16 kWh battery pack. The 50 kW drives the wheels and a 25 kW one backs it up and as generator for regenerative braking. range is up to 100 km. A one-litre 50 kW three-cylinder IC charges the batteries when the drops to 20%, and connects to the in parallel hybrid mode, so up to 125 kW is available.

The BYD Qin PHEV has a more dual-mode electric powertrain, it depends more on its petrol It has two 110 kW motors and a 10 kWh lithium-ion iron battery pack giving range of only 50 km. However, a 1.5 turbocharged engine enables performance with 225 kW power and 440 Nm evolved from the F6DM car.

The BYD S6DM is a PHEV It has a 10 kW electric motor driving the wheels through a six-speed and a 75 kW one driving the back. A two-litre engine supplements the electrics, charging the battery pack the front motor/generator or in parallel mode in 4WD for most power. range is 60 km.

BYD also has a joint with Daimler to make EVs – see section.

BMW’s i3 (see EV section) is to be offered with a extender 650 cc two-cylinder IC engine as in a BMW motor cycle. It cuts in the battery is low and extends the range to 300 km, costing an extra EUR 4500, or in the USA.

The BMW i8 is a parallel hybrid concept, with 98 kW synchronous motor on the front axle range of 35 km from a 7.2 kWh lithium-ion pack. A 1500 cc three-cylinder IC delivering 164 kW is rear-mounted. It is expected on the late in 2014. Mass is kg. Recharge is 3.5 hours from 120 12 amp system or 1.5 hours from 220 at 16 amps. It is expected to cost than EUR 100,000.

Mitsubishi has a PHEV based on its i-MiEV EV section below). At low speed PX-MiEV functions as an EV using batteries, with low battery it functions as a series hybrid charges battery), and at high as a parallel hybrid in the sense the 85 kW, 1.6 litre petrol motor over the front drive, assisted by up to 60 kW of electric power two motors (front and rear) for The concept is a 4WD, with a control system and regenerative Plug-in charging can be 100 or 200 volt or at high-power quick charging giving 80% in 30 minutes. In EV mode it has 50 km

PHEVs are likely to remain even if in future there is an for the on-board energy carrier to be rather than simply a and the on-board electric powerplant is supplied through a fuel so plug-in hybrid-electrics have a application.

Full Electric (EVs) aka Battery Electric (BEVs)

These are an extension of the concept, as well as substantially it. Plenty of these have built, but mostly with lead-acid batteries and for uses than motor cars. a number of manufacturers are building EVs over 35 kWh on board, using (or lithium magnesium oxide) and regenerative braking to help them. A range of electric now starting to come on the market energy usage of 13-20 km, with 15 kWh/100 km being best,* albeit without heating or air conditioning. A safety with EVs is their quietness pedestrians, and some may have an sound generator operable at of below 20km/h to warn

* Sustainable Energy – without the hot 2009, D MacKay, ch20.

The Indian REVAi car made in popular in the UK as G-Wiz i, has lead batteries. It is very small, and as a heavy quad cycle. It 665 kg (including 270 kg batteries) and has a 13 kW AC motor by 9.6 kWh of battery capacity, with braking. Recharge of 9.7 kWh is in 8 hours and 77 km. In 2009 a L-ion version was with lithium-ion batteries, the mass by 100 kg and recharge time to 6 while increasing the range to 120 km and doubling the price. This also has provision for fast from three-phase power: 90% in one

General Motors produced the EV1 in the first with lead-acid then with NiMH but the 18 to 26 kWh on board did not give enough and recharge was slow.

EVs and series can eliminate the mechanical transmission (as as the complex parallel PHEV system) and have a drive in each wheel, though will affect the unsprung adversely and hence roadworthiness. But is a very simple system and minimal further development from optimising batteries.

In May Nissan (with Renault) that it would downplay and would mass-produce full vehicles from 2010 for and US markets. In January 2010 claimed to be the only automaker to mass-marketing all-electric vehicles on a scale. It has formed numerous with states, municipalities, companies and others to develop for these. The Renault-Nissan alliance is EUR 4 billion overall, with staff working on the project at of Nisan and Renault.

Considering with 50 to 100 kW motors, Renault-Nissan out three ways to charge Slow charge on standard (10 or 16 amps, 220 volt) at home or (6-8 hours), quick at service station (20-30 32 amps, 400 volt) and battery (5 minutes), in conjunction with Place (see below). The will have advanced ion batteries in the floorpan with an life of five years.

The Leaf has laminated lithium-ion of 24 kWh driving an 80 kW synchronous AC motor drive train and a range of 160 km. It can be overnight at 240 volts (a 40-amp is recommended), or less efficiently 120 volts, and optionally 80% from quick-charge DC station in 30 minutes. is about 1500 kg. Some have been sold late 2010, half of in Japan, and production capacity of per year was envisaged from A US factory opened in 2013.*

* The US EPA the Nissan Leaf with an of 106 miles per US gallon city, 92 for a combined 99 MPGe (2.376 km). This calculation is on the EPA’s formula of 33.7 kWh equivalent to one US gallon (3.79 gasoline energy, or 8.9 kWh/L This relates to a charging of seven hours on 240 volts and a range of 117 km, with varying conditions and climate controls.

in mid-2009 announced that it market a range of four EVs from 2011-12, with the being sold at about the price as diesel equivalent and the being rented. It expects costs to be 20% lower and maintenance 50% lower than equivalent vehicles.

The Renault Fluence ZE has a 22 kWh battery powering a 70 kW synchronous and giving 185 km range. It is built in and is being sold in Israel, UK, Spain, France and Germany 2011 without any battery, was being leased on 12-month contract plans in the Better system. In Israel this the cost of electricity supplied at homes, public charging or via automated battery switch The 280 kg battery is positioned vertically at the and can be charged from a domestic 230 volt socket, from charging stations or using the system designed for Zoe (below). mass is 1600 kg.

The Renault Zoe ZE was in 2012, based on its Twizy, a 22 kWh lithium-ion battery powering a 65 kW motor and giving 100-210 km (depending on temperature and other It is built in France, and first were in December 2012. In the Zoe costs €20,700 before a €7,000 tax incentive, but plus a fee for the battery. The cost of leasing the for 36 months starts from for an annual distance travelled of km and includes comprehensive breakdown In UK it costs £14,000 plus £70 per month for the battery. It has a Chameleon system, allowing recharge at any level, from 30 minutes to hours.

Toyota has stood from EV developments while the success of its hybrid Prius. But in May it announced that it would $50 million in US-based Tesla and develop a new low-priced EV – basically a with a Tesla powertrain. also bought the NUMMI car at Fremont in California as a base for all its The plant has a capacity of half a vehicles per year and uses the Production System. Production now be mainly the new Toyota-Tesla model and its own S, development of which was financed by a million federal loan, mass-produced from 2012. The price for the new model with was less than $30,000.

In May 2012 Toyota announced its new EV of its RAV4 sports utility made in Ontario, with powertrain and price of $49,000 – than twice the price of its version. It has a 115 kW drivetrain powering the wheels from a 42 kWh lithium-ion pack, and claims a range of 160 km and six-hour charge time at 240 and 40 amps. Battery warranty is 8 /160,000 km. This arises a $60 million October 2010 with Tesla regarding the and battery pack for the RAV4 EV

Several thousand Tesla have now been sold, but is a high-priced ($110,000), high EV. It has a three-phase 215 kW induction motor through a single-speed 8.27:1 and a 53 kWh lithium-ion battery pack 450 kg. The vehicle mass is 1235 kg, the motor contributing only 52 kg of and giving 400 Nm torque up to 6000 The plug to wheel efficiency is at 174 Wh/km, the battery to wheel at 88%.

The Tesla S is much (1735 kg) but half the price $69,900, $79,900 depending on It has a three-phase AC induction motor, a drive inverter and a single-speed transaxle gearbox with 9.7 reduction ratio. It has three battery pack options of 40, 60 or 85 giving 260, 370 or 480 km range, floor and with liquid Charging is from domestic (110 or 240 volt), or 45-minute charge from three-phase 100 amp supply. A Universal Mobile is the basic equipment for household or public charging stations, 10 kW charge (20 kW twin charge is A 50% charge in 30 minutes can be achieved. A high-performance model for $97,900 has a drive inverter’ with the 85 kWh and 310 kW motor. It weighs 2.08 30% of which is batteries. Battery is 8 years/ 160,000 km. In 2013 the 40 kWh option was discontinued. Tesla is 20,000 model S per year, and the model X, an SUV variant with an motor driving the front

Tesla is reported to have back its US government loan in nine years ahead of and investors pushed the share up to value the company at one-quarter of value.

BMW’s i3 was on the EU market by the end of as a small five-door car. The motor on the rear axle is 130 kW, and 12.9 kWh/100 km. Its 18.8 kWh lithium-ion battery under the gives it an electric range of 130 to 160 km. time at 16 amps is 6-8 hours, but charge at 125 amps can be achieved in 30 minutes. With much of it made carbon fibre, is about 1200 kg. A range-extender is available, making it a PHEV nearly double the range, see section. EU prices are about EUR plus 3000 for range before any government incentives.

has developed the i-MiEV with 16 kWh battery pack under the giving it a range of 160 km (at 18 kW power of the full 47 kW), hence 10 A 47 kW synchronous motor sits in of the rear axle. It has regenerative It recharges from 240 volts in 7 (through a 15 amp household plug), but can take 80% charge in 35 mins. is 1100 kg. It is now being marketed in RH markets Under a September agreement the i-MiEV will be to Peugeot Citroen for marketing in from late 2010, as the iOn and Citroen C-zero.

In 2010 and China’s BYD formed a 50:50 venture: Shenzen BYD Daimler New Co Ltd (BDNT), and in 2014 it announced the Denza EV. using the B-class platform, to go on sale from at CNY 369,000, or CNY 120,000 less government subsidies. The plant have a capacity of 40,000 per year. It has a 47.5 kWh lithium-ion battery pack driving a 86 kW (peak, 68 kW rated) giving a of 150 km/h, up to 290 Nm torque and a range of 253 km at kWh/100 km (or 18.9 kWh/100 km charging losses). It is evidently based on the BYD e6, and over 100 have had two of road testing in China.

The BYD e6 has a 48 kWh iron phosphate battery it a range of 240-300 km and a battery of 2000 cycles. It consumes kWh/100 km in taxi service, and can be in 30 minutes. There are four power combinations for the e6: 75 kW, 75+40 kW, 160 kW and kW. The two-motor options are 4WD. A of 45 e6 taxis was being trialed in Kong during 2013, and 50 in UK. A similar and successful trial in in 2010 resulted in 800 e6 taxis commissioned there. The Shenzen use 500 BYD e6 vehicles. Mass is 2020 kg. The US is to have a 60 kWh battery pack and a 160 kW BYD is backed in the USA by Berkshire Hathaway. BYD buses are operating in Holland.

In the first three Nissan EV undertook a 90-day trial in promoted by California-based Better which was focused on infrastructure than vehicles. Rather recharging the actual vehicles, the battery pack was swapped in one minute, since the taxis to travel an average of 360 km during a day. The Japanese government the Tokyo trial to establish the of converting the city’s 60,000 to EV, eliminating a billion tonnes of CO2 emissions annually, and requiring 300 stations.

Renault was building switchable battery vehicles for Place’s first full-scale in Israel in 2012, followed by The Renault-Nissan-Better Place partnership is both sides seeking to their systems and batteries to multiple customers and users. Place also signed a development agreement with Chery Automobile Co, the biggest carmaker in China. However, in May Better Place filed for The Renault Fluence ZE was the main car the battery swap system for its 22 kWh battery.

Tanfield subsidiary Electric Vehicles is the world’s manufacturer of road-going commercial vehicles. In the UK Smith has marketed the van, powered by a 50 kW motor a 24 kWh lithium-ion iron phosphate pack. It claims 160 km range on a charge with 800 kg payload, and 1520 kg (tare). This to have been replaced by the truck/van/coach on a Ford Transit with payload 700-2300 kg in a of configurations for non-US markets. It has a 90 kW with 36-51 kWh lithium-ion phosphate battery pack range of 90 to 180 km and claims to be the world light commercial EV. In the USA Smith the Newton truck with 2.8 to 7 payload and varied wheelbases. is powered by a 120 kW motor with kWh lithium-ion iron phosphate pack and has a range of 50 to 240 km. The first US were delivered in mid 2009. The of both Edison and Newton on size of battery pack and conditions, recharge is 6-8 hours, and top of both is 80 km/h.

The Tata Vista EV has a 26.5 kWh super-polymer battery pack and 50 kW motor 160 km range. Its mass is 1300 kg and it has a magnet synchronous motor and to front wheels. It is being on a trial basis at £190 per as part of the Coventry and Birmingham Low Demonstration (CABLED) plan in UK. It from a standard 13-amp UK socket in eight hours.

has had Smart EVs on test in London, and March 2011 on a trial 40 were available on lease for per month plus £780 They have a 15 kWh lithium-ion battery pack with 30 kW DC motor driving the rear and giving a range of 135 km. They are of the Coventry and Birmingham Low Emission (CABLED) plan in UK. It charges a standard 13-amp UK power in 8 hours.

A University of Delaware EV based on a Toyota Scion can run for 200 km on a two-hour 240 volt charge or 120 volt charge. The annual cost of driving 400 km per week off-peak charging is estimated at $150, compared with for equivalent petrol-power. It also has to grid (V2G) capacity.

For uses batteries on their own be inadequate on several counts – have poor performance in regions, in winter temperatures and the driver wants to run heating and air While many battery drivers become well in their vehicle use so they can their journeys around the of battery charging, the PHEV remains attractive to give versatility.

Sources of electricity

all electricity generation technologies renewables will play a in meeting increased electricity for PHEVs and EVs, the positive of the scenario on nuclear power

The PHEV and EV requirement for electrical (particularly off-peak power) may relatively soon as the concept of gains wider acceptance, the technology is all available.

When cells using hydrogen are in use, PHEVs will attractive because if drivers can batteries from the mains for just 15 cents/kWh, or from on-board generator at a dollar per they will choose the expensive method some of the especially because it provides emission driving.

The UK Department of and teh Royal Academy of Engineering have both estimated if the UK switched to battery electric electricity demand (kWh) rise about 16%. The US Power Research Institute 60% of US vehicle use being electric and a 9% increase in electricity demand. As can be from the graphs above, need not increase the system’s capacity if most charging is thereby greatly increasing the of total generating capacity by base-load plant – see below. A conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Department of Energy in found that the idle grid capacity in the USA would be to power 84% of all vehicles in the USA if they all immediately replaced with vehicles. Areva has calculated if 10% of cars in France were it would increase base-load by more than 6000 MWe EPRs, or 10% of nuclear capacity). In the diagrams, assuming significant to electric cars mostly off-peak, the base-load demand is by about 35%.

PHEVs and EVs to a large extent be able to utilise power at times (and at lower hence drawing on base-load capacity and increasing the demand for This will mean average cost of power in the grid system, since the component will become a large proportion of the peak If vehicle to grid (V2G) in peak periods is enabled, will help reduce further, but there are some to be overcome for this to happen.

battery technologies allow high-current opportunity charging means an overall increase in generating and distribution demand. The electrical load will at a rate that can be accommodated by planning for additional power and infrastructure. PHEVs and EVs can contribute to oil as well as cleaner air. estimates that the payback for the price premium on a PHEV is years.

A further development of or at least the infrastructure for them, was by Better Place, in what are islands for car populations – Israel and then Denmark. Here, changeover battery packs offered. Nissan was involved the project. A further development of the is for Tokyo’s taxis. However, manufacturers do not see this concept as since the battery design and is integral to the vehicle and they no intention of standardizing batteries.

technology is seen as the base for utilization of fuel cells because hydrogen is likely to be at as expensive as petrol/gasoline and therefore any to use mains power will be attractive. Supplementing this is conservation (from regenerative to a battery. The choice of technology for a power plant is likely to much less impact the plug-in aspect of the design use of base-load mains power.

technology and Charging

This is the key for PHEV and EV: achieving high with low mass and low cost, with safety and a long Batteries need to be capable of deep discharge. Also are likely to need to run heating and air where there is no IC engine or it switches off part time. also need to be able to to a satisfactory level in very weather.

While current fuels provide 12-14 MJ per mass (net of IC engine 45 MJ/kg gross thermal), the batteries provide only 2-3 (550-800 Wh/kg net), and at twice the volume. Commercial are much less than (see below).

As well as heavy and bulky, batteries are Starting with costs of $1000 per kWh capacity, and the aim is to reduce to well below $400/kWh. says that battery has halved in the four years to and the Boston Consulting Group that costs need to get to $200/kWh before electric are competitive, and this is reported to be target. Bloomberg New Energy has launched an index tracking the of EV batteries. It expects the cost of batteries to drop to $150/kWh by compared with around in 2009. Batteries make up 25% of the cost of electric vehicles the Nissan Leaf or Tesla S.

Lead-acid batteries are well in traction roles as well as for cars and running accessories. But are very heavy and only a few years.

Nickel metal (NiMH) batteries are well-proven and durable, though can be damaged some discharge conditions.* are similar to nickel cadmium batteries, but use a hydrogen-absorbing alloy as the instead of cadmium.

* if a cell in a assembly fully discharges the may drive it to reverse the polarity and damage it.

Lithium-ion batteries* more power from mass and are constantly being in relation to safety, reliability and Research continues particularly on cathodes – early ones cobalt oxide cathodes, ones use manganese oxides or phosphates, which tend to be efficient but are more reliable. A structure (3D lattice with gives fast charge and but lower capacity that type (though still 50% than NiMH). A123 are to claim that their batteries will last for at ten years and 7000 charge while LG Chem claims 40 life for lithium-manganese spinel for the GM Volt. There have some well-publicised fires in power sources, particularly crashes and where the battery has not been discharged, or de-powered.

* lithium resources, see Lithium — World Lithium a report on the world’s lithium and reserves by R. Keith Evans.

(A contract for back-up power for CGNPC nuclear power went to BYD for 3.5 MWh lithium-ion iron batteries able to supply 2.5 BYD launched the world’s first iron-phosphate energy storage in 2010, which was attached to Southern Power Grid. In it supplied an even larger 36 MWh for China’s State Grid’s Sun’ project – a renewable, power generation plant.)

State University is researching Liquid (MAIL) batteries promise lower cost and long life, where the of a metal yields energy.

are another research frontier to electricity storage for cars, to batteries in providing for acceleration, and being able to accept inputs from regenerative

Regarding energy density, capacity and hence run time, batteries hold about watt-hours per kilogram of battery the much safer and more lithium-ion iron phosphate and manganese batteries being at the end of this range. BYD quotes 100 for “inherently safe” and more stable lithium-ion iron batteries in their F3DM compared with 150-200 for lithium-ion cobalt types. compare with 29 Wh/kg metal hydride (NiMH) in today’s Prius (though published figures for NiMH give up to 90 Wh/kg) and 30-40 from lead-acid batteries. But the cost is now around US$ 1000/kWh.

For density, indicating how much can be delivered on demand, manganese and lithium-ion, as well as nickel-based are among the best performers.

Mercedes-Benz BlueZero E-Plus Cell

batteries are specified for the GM Volt and the and intended for Ford’s forthcoming However, most of those are to use more advanced ones lithium-ion iron phosphate 4 or Li 2 FePO 4 F) cathode, the latter a lower power density but service life. Both are much safer than ones with lithium dioxide cathodes. The Volt is in eight hours from 120 outlet or half that 240 volts, so presumably at 16 amps.

has joined with NEC and a subsidiary, NEC to set up Automotive Energy Supply (AESC) to develop and market laminated Li-ion batteries for use in and EVs. AESC commenced in May 2008.

Tesla uses Li-ion batteries and is looking at a venture in USA to produces them. It to get the cost down to $200/kWh

Nissan, EdF, and others an infrastructure integrating three of charging systems: from supply overnight (6-8 off-peak), similar slower in parking lots during the and fast charging points will give up to an 80% charge in 30 In addition to these there be five-minute battery pack for long trips, raising the of batteries being leased than owned, or electricity selling a service configured for users, not just batteries and

Focusing on the home base, a 13 amp plug such as standard in UK, and 240 system, a 16 kWh battery pack as in the GM Volt could be recharged in 5.5 Many battery packs be much larger than so 40 amp charge points may often be for overnight charging, particularly 110 volt systems.

BMW and PSA Peugot have announced a joint to produce hybrid EVs in Europe. EUR 100 million JV will focus on motors and battery packs by with RD in Munich and development at in France.

Siemens has launched its point Charge CP700A on the market which can charge EVs a normal battery capacity an hour. This is achieved three-phase AC connection at 32 amps per hence 22 kW, using IEC 62196 connecter. Charging can also be at 20 in the three-phase mode, or at 15 amps phase, with IEC standard connecter.

Fuel cell

Experimental fuel cell (FCV) are now appearing, starting buses. For sources of hydrogen for see companion paper Transport and the Economy . These are much from commercial realization.

has been testing its FCX Clarity fuel cell vehicle lithium ion battery pack on US and has started marketing it. The motor is 100 kW AC, Proton Exchange Membrane cell stack and 170-litre hydrogen tank giving a of 620 km. Vehicle mass is 1.6 tonnes. The US deliveries were scheduled for in southern California with a lease term at a price of per month, including maintenance and insurance. Over three to 2011 Honda planned to about 200 of these vehicles, of them in Japan. In September there were reported to be 32 on the 19 in California, 11 in Japan and 2 in Europe.

Fuel cell hybrid with the motor driven by the and the fuel cell topping up the and giving it greater life (by kept more fully are being developed. The Toyota – equipped with a high-performance cell stack and nickel hydride batteries. The design of the (MEA) has been optimised to for low-temperature start-up and operation to minus 30°C. Fuel output is 90 kW, matching the motor delivers 260 Nm. Efficiency was improved by 25% the earlier FCHV through fuel cell unit enhancing the regenerative brake and reducing energy consumed by the system. In the 1.9 tonne five-seat a 70 MPa pressure vessel is used to hydrogen which allows for an range of more than 800 km in the driving-cycle.

Beyond the electric initiatives described above, the Alliance is developing fuel electric vehicles. In 2008 two are in an advanced engineering phase:

X-Trail FCV has been undergoing testing for more than two with examples leased to authorities in Japan.

Renault’s Scenic ZEV H2 FCV is a joint Alliance featuring Nissan’s in-house fuel cell stack, hydrogen storage tank and lithium-ion batteries. Renault put the FCV elements under the floor, to cabin space for five and integrated Renault and Nissan and electronic systems.

Both have been created to the viability of the fuel cell and to underline the Alliance’s commitment to a emission future. During Nissan demonstrated the X-Trail FCV in six countries and Renault showcased the ZEV H2. In August 2008 Nissan a new generation stack with output increased from 90 kW to 130 kW, for vehicles. Fuel cell size is reduced by 25% to 68 litres 90 litres, which allows for packaging flexibility.

The Mercedes-Benz with fuel-cell drive has its winter testing in northern and Mercedes planned to launch the series FCV in mid 2010. Small-series of the B-Class F-Cell was to commence in 2010. A refined, more yet more efficient system is in this than the A-Class The compact electric motor 100 kW peak (70 kW sustained) power and a torque of 320 Nm, surpassing the performance of a two-litre petrol engine. is 400 km. At the same time, it uses the of just 2.9 litres/100 km of fuel equivalent).

An issue with hydrogen in fuel cells is energy efficiency. If a nuclear generates electricity which is for electrolysis of water and the hydrogen is and used in fuel cell vehicle (assuming 60% efficient cell), the efficiency is much than if the electricity is used in EVs and PHEVs.* However, if the hydrogen can be by thermochemical means the efficiency and they are comparable with

* Say: 35% x 75% x 60% x 90% = 14% optimistically (reactor, fuel cell, motor)

to: 50% x 60% x 90% = 27% for thermochemical hydrogen

cf 35% x 90% = 31% for EV.

An Australian of Science report in December summarised the situation regarding cell vehicles:

Fuel technology currently has a number of problems before it can be used for motor transport. The most fuel cell type in will be proton exchange fuel cells. These at around 90°C and would be for vehicles if they can be produced and are robust, neither of which has yet achieved. They also to operate with hydrogen than natural gas. The way this could be done is to use an gas reformer which is very has a weight penalty and would have safety issues. fuel cells can run with gas, but they operate at in excess of 600°C and therefore may be for vehicular application.

In March it was reported that 12 new hydrogen stations opened throughout the in 2011, bringing the total of hydrogen refuelling stations in to 215. This is the result of the annual assessment by H2stations.org. a of LBST and TÜV SÜD. Another 122 stations were in the final stage around the world.

Further Interesting Designs

BMW has an ActiveHybridX6 4WD, for marketing in the USA 2010, and a similar ActiveHybrid7 The parallel drive system of a 298 kW twin-turbocharged 4.4-litre V8 gasoline and two electric synchronous motors 68 kW and 64 kW, respectively. Maximum system is 358 kW, and peak torque reaches 781 Nm a very wide range. It is to run solely on electric power up to 60 with the internal combustion activated automatically when The two-mode transmission (stop-start and uses a seven-speed automatic The 2.4 kWh high-voltage NiMH battery is recharged partly through braking and maximum output is 57 kW. it gives an all-electric range of 2.5 km.

From a stop and at low speeds, one of the BMW’s two electric motors is As soon as the driver requires power or increased speed, the electric motor automatically the internal combustion engine. The electric motor then as a generator to provide a supply of power to the vehicle systems. driving steadily at a higher most of the power required is by the combustion engine in a largely process. Here again, one of the two motors acts as a generator.

In 2009 BMW announced its PHEV car, which has since into the i8 concept car. was a parallel hybrid which BMW ActiveHybrid technology with an 1.5 litre three-cylinder turbodiesel in front of the rear axle and an motor on each axle, normally being from all The rear electric motor consistent 24.6 kW and peak 38 kW, with the diesel motor, the one is synchronous giving continuous of 60 kW and peak power of 83.5 kW. braking from the rear charges the 10.8 kWh lithium-polymer pack which is arranged the centre axis of the floor Its mass is only 85 kg. Mains is through a 220 volt 16 amp plug, full, recharge in 2.5 hours. At 380 and 32 amps charge time is 44 Electric-only range is 50 km, giving kWh/100km. Mass is 1400 kg.

BMW has the Mini-E. It has a 35 kWh lithium ion battery taking up the back seat and weighing 260kg. It can be charged in hours from a household socket (presumably at 16 amps on a 240 system, 35 amps on 110 volts) or in two with special fittings. A 150 kW motor gives the 1.5 tonne car a range of 250 km, hence almost 15 It leased 600 of these to drivers in UK and USA.

In September 2009 announced its Concept BlueZERO plus PHEV car based on its This is a series hybrid, an efficient one-litre three-cylinder 50 kW petrol engine (from the in front of the rear axle to the battery, and a compact 100 kW electric (70 kW sustained level) with a torque of 320 Nm. It is front-wheel drive. braking also charges the kWh lithium-ion battery pack in the pan. Mains charging is at 3.3 kW, through a 220 volt 15 amp plug, full recharge in 6 hours. charging is at 20 kW to give a 50 km range. range is 100 km, giving 17.5 An all-electric version has 35 kWh battery

In mid-2010 Mercedes announced its SLS EV car. Traction is provided by synchronous electric motors a combined peak output of 392 kW and a torque of 880 Nm. The four compact motors each achieve a rpm of 12,000 rpm and are positioned near the so that, compared with motors, the unsprung masses are reduced. It has a liquid-cooled high-voltage volt) lithium-ion battery a modular design with an content of 48 kWh (3 x 16 kWh) and a capacity of 40

Mercedes early in 2009 its Concept BlueZERO E-cell car 35 kWh lithium-ion battery capacity and a of 200 km. The compact electric motor 100 kW peak (70 kW sustained) power and a torque of 320 Nm.

Ford has an Airstream concept car powered by a hydrogen-electric drivetrain – the HySeries Drive. The battery pack drives the and a compact steady-state fuel system is a range extender – the cell’s sole function is to the Li-ion battery pack as using 4.5 kg of hydrogen on board. It can be mains charged.

Early in Ford announced four new EVs being developed with on the Focus and Fusion platforms, to be on the by 2012. The test vehicles are by a 100 kW three-phase AC motor which through a single speed A 23 kWh lithium-ion battery pack a range of 130km and can be charged a standard 220 volt socket in six or 110-volt in 12 hours.

The Tesla EV is reported to have 56 kWh on board and to its 450 kg of batteries from a 13 amp mains in 16 hours, or rapidly in 3.5 hours, more recent figures say 8 on 120 volts*. Its motor is 185 kW, three Vehicle mass 1.2 tonnes and range is 350 km. Deliveries commenced in The Tesla S, development of which is financed by a $465 million loan, will be mass in California from 2011.

* The 3.5 hr mean 16 kWh per hour, so 64 amps rate on a 240 volt system, the 8 on 120 volts would mean 58 Two mobile connectors are offered to charge from any available outlet: 240 volt 30 amp, and 120 15 amp, along with a connecter. The battery pack is to have a 160,000 km lifecycle and $12,000 to replace.

Porsche has produced 918 Spyder hybrid, as well as the Cayenne S SUV with parallel full-hybrid and the 911 GT3 R Hybrid race car with drive on the front axle and a mass energy storage of a passenger seat. This was and was then developed into the 918 RSR. The flywheel accumulator is an motor whose rotor at up to 36,000 rpm to store rotation Charging occurs when the two motors on the front axle their function during processes and operate as generators. At the of a button, the driver is able to up the energy stored in the charged accumulator and use it during acceleration or maneuvers. The flywheel is braked in this case in order to supply up to 2 x 75 kW, from its kinetic to the two electric motors on the front

The Spyder has a powerful V8 engine as as electric motors on the front and axles with overall output of 160 kW. Power is transmitted to the by a seven-speed transmission that the power of the electric drive to the rear axle. The front-wheel drive powers the wheels a fixed transmission ratio. It has a lithium-ion battery and uses braking. The driver can choose four different running The E-Drive mode is for running the car electric power alone, a range of up to 25 km. In the Hybrid mode, it both the electric motors and the IC as a function of driving conditions and offering a range from fuel-efficient all the way to extra-powerful. The Sport mode also uses drive systems, but with the on performance. Most of the drive goes to the rear wheels. In the Hybrid mode the drive are focused on pure performance, at the limit to their power and output. With the battery charged, a push-to-pass button in additional electrical power when overtaking.

The Porsche 911 GT3 R has two 60 kW electric motors on the front supplementing the four-litre rear A flywheel stores energy regenerative braking and supplies it for acceleration.

The Norwegian Think Pivo) once owned by has its Think City EV with 30 kW motor, 160 km range, and sodium standard with lithium-ion as Think quotes 9.5 hours from 230 volts at 14 amps for 80% Mass is 1.04 tonnes 260 kg battery pack. However, in the company was bankrupt after in introducing the Think City EV to USA at It was apparently bought by Russian involved with the car’s batteries.

In the UK, the company which London’s black cabs to develop an electric-powered version, it was promoting as a zero-emission urban designed for congested urban Manganese Bronze signed an with Tanfield, to develop a version of its TX4 London cab – the TX4E. subsidiary Smith Electric is the world’s largest manufacturer of commercial electric vehicles. was to deliver an initial five of in 2011 under an agreement the UK Technology Strategy Board for the and Birmingham Low Emission Demonstration project, but this, over to mid 2012, did not use one among its 110 vehicles, and Bronze went into in October 2012. Zhejiang Holdings, which owned took over the balance in A Shanghai-based joint venture 52%) was set up to produce the TX4 in China 2008, with Geely them outside UK as Englon then developing it to the Englon Geely UK Ltd assembles the cabs in UK. hydrogen fuel cell of the TX4 were operated in 2012 in but nothing more has been of the electric cab project since

The new TX4E cab was designed to replace of London’s 20,000 licensed It would have a top speed of 80 and a range of 200 km on one battery charge. It be powered by an advanced electric train and an iron phosphate battery pack. The technology was to be Smith’s well-proven all-electric recharged off-peak in 6 to 8 hours, and of rapid top-up in an hour. costs were expected to be under half those of the TX4 diesel version.

Jaguar has the hybrid with two small gas (each 35 kg) to charge the batteries. 145 kW electric motors at each drive the 1350 kg vehicle up to 330 with total torque of Nm. It has an electric-only range of 110 km, but a 60-litre tank.

Peugeot’s RCZ hybrid has a diesel engine driving the wheels and a 27 kW electric motor the rear wheels. It has regenerative to charge a high-voltage battery of unspecified capacity. It may be marketed early 2011.

Mazda’s hybrid is a more conventional hybrid SUV with nickel battery and 2.3 litre petrol Mazda’s Premacy hydrogen RE mover has a lithium ion battery and a hydrogen-fuelled rotary engine. It to be a full parallel hybrid. leasing is envisaged.

In 2005 brought out a PHEV Mercedes van prototype, with 107 kW (143 internal combustion engine and 90 kW bhp) electric motor, its giving it a 30 km electric range. may lead to a commercial version the technology.

Volkswagen has produced a LI concept car, a narrow (fore aft) with 10 kW motor assisting an 800 cc diesel giving 1.38 litres/100km.

in 2009 unveiled its Eup! EV with production model in 2013. It has 18 kWh of lithium-ion batteries 240 kg of total 1085 kg) giving an range of 130 km. A US version will be and have 200 km range. It can get 80% charge in an or full charge in 5 hours 230-volt system. It uses SCIB (Super Charge Ion technology which is resistant to circuits. Solar panels on the run ancillary systems.

The Audi A1 is a PHEV with a small motor simply to top up the battery. The electric motor delivers 75 kW power or 45 kW continuous to the front The 380 volt lithium-ion battery has a energy content of 12 kWh giving an range of 50 km, and weighs less 150 kg. A fully depleted battery can be in approximately three hours a 380 volt grid. It has regenerative The 250cc motor drives a 15 kW at constant 5000 rpm, and the charging set up weighs only 70 kg and is audible. The vehicle mass is kg and overall range is 200 km (with fuel tank).

The Lotus PHEV has two 152 kW electric motors each of the rear wheels via a single speed geartrain, into a common transmission A 17 kWh lithium polymer battery is centrally-mounted and can be charged from supply overnight. It gives 55 km A 35 kW 1.2 litre three-cylinder IC motor a generator to charge the battery and range extension. The range pack weighs only 85 kg. says that this is an compromise between large with mass and cost and greater reliance on IC motor (as in

The luxury Fisker Karma sports sedan built in with first production in 2011, claims an 80 km range on 20 kWh battery before the two-litre IC kicks in with 175 kW generator. It is a hybrid driven by twin 120 kW motors. Charging in said to be 4 to 8 Mass is 2400 kg. About were produced before ceased in November 2012. Automotive Inc was preparing to produce the mass-market rear-drive Atlantic Nina) in the USA, in Delaware, but was abandoned. The Atlantic uses a BMW engine to charge the batteries. The is set to be taken over by Wanxiang a subsidiary of a Chinese parts and the new owner of Fisker’s battery A123 systems (now Production of the Karma may resume.

has the V60 diesel PHEV which is deployed in collaboration with the Swedish electric utility and is to be in 2012. It is an outcome of the V2 Plug-in-Hybrid Partnership set up in 2007, and is a parallel Its 12 kWh lithium-ion battery will be from a 10 amp wall socket in five hours, as well as by braking, and gives an electric of 50km. A 50 kW electric motor is by a 150 kW diesel motor. Three cars based on Volvo V70 been in operation.

Peugeot planned to market a HYbrid4 diesel in 2012.

Peugeot have the C1 ev’le which to be the first UK four-seater production EV. It has a 30 kW and a lithium-ion battery pack recharges in 7 hours from 13 amp giving the 900 kg vehicle a 110 km range.


Romm J.J. A.F. 2006, Hybrid Gain Traction, Scientific April 2006.

Economist Quarterly, 10/6/06.

Brown, 2006, Critical Paths to a Age (ANL paper).

Phil David Barber

R. Hunwick, in Vehicles presentation 16/10/07.

2008, Energy Technology

AAS 2009: Australia’s Renewable Future

Royal Academy of May 2010, Electric vehicles: with potential.

Energy Association of Australia (ESAA), Nov Sparking an Electric Vehicle in Australia

Mercedes-Benz BlueZero E-Plus Cell
Mercedes-Benz BlueZero E-Plus Cell
Mercedes-Benz BlueZero E-Plus Cell
Mercedes-Benz BlueZero E-Plus Cell

interesting records

Here you can write a commentary on the recording "Electricity and Cars | Electric Vehicles".

Sign in, to write a review.

Our partners
Follow us
Contact us
Our contacts


Born in the USSR


About this site

For all questions about advertising, please contact listed on the site.

Mercedes-Benz catalog with specifications, pictures, ratings, reviews and discusssions about cars Mercedes-Benz.