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Lexus is the vehicle division of Japanese Toyota Motor Corporation. introduced in 1989 in the United Lexus is now sold globally and has Japan’s largest-selling make of cars. The Lexus marque is in over 70 countries and territories and has ranked among the ten largest global brands in market Lexus is headquartered in Nagoya, Operational centers are located in Belgium, and Torrance, California, States. Lexus originated a clandestine flagship sedan code-named F1, which began in and culminated in the launch of the original LS in 1989. Subsequently, the division sedan, coupé, convertible, and SUV In 2005, a hybrid version of the RX debuted, and additional hybrid later joined the division’s In 2007, Lexus launched its own F performance division with the of the IS F sport sedan, followed by the LFA in 2009. From the start of Lexus vehicles have produced in Japan, with centered in the Chūbu and Kyūshū and in particular at Toyota’s Tahara, Chūbu and Miyata, Fukuoka, plants. Assembly of the first built outside the country, the Canada-produced RX 330, began in Following a corporate reorganization 2001 to 2005, Lexus operates its own design, engineering, and centers, solely responsible for the vehicles. Since the 2000s, has increased sales outside its market in the United States an ongoing global expansion. The inaugurated dealerships in Japan’s market in 2005, becoming the Japanese premium car marque to in its country of origin. Further in Southeast Asia, Latin Europe, and other export have since followed. The lineup has also been to reflect regional specifications in and powertrain configurations. In 1983, chairman Eiji Toyoda a secret meeting of company to whom he posed the question, we create a luxury vehicle to the world’s best?” This prompted Toyota to embark on a project, code-named F1 (“Flagship The F1 project, whose finished was ultimately the Lexus LS 400, to develop a flagship sedan would expand Toyota’s line, giving it a foothold in the segment and offering both and new customers an upmarket product. The F1 followed the success of the Toyota sports car and the premium Toyota models. Both the Supra and were rear-wheel drive with a powerful 7M-GTE / inline-six engine. The largest Toyota built at the time was the 1960s-vintage Toyota Century, its hand built, limousine and sole V8-powered model, by the inline-six-engined Toyota Crown sedan. The Century was conservatively for the Japanese market, and along the Crown not slated for export. F1 targeted their new sedan at markets and began development on a new V8 The opportunity for Japanese manufacturers to more expensive models had in the 1980s due to voluntary export negotiated by the Japanese government and trade representatives, restricting car sales. In 1986, Honda its Acura marque in the U.S. Toyota’s plans for a luxury the initial Acura model was an version of the Honda Legend, launched in Japan in 1985 as a to the Toyota Crown, Nissan and Mazda Luce. In 1987, unveiled its plans for a premium Infiniti, and revised its flagship President sedan in standard form for export as the Infiniti which it launched in 1990. In Mazda began selling the as the Mazda 929 in North America, and began plans to develop an marque, to be called Amati, but its did not come to fruition. Toyota visited the U.S. in May 1985 to focus groups and market on luxury consumers. During time, several F1 designers a home in Laguna Beach, to observe the lifestyles and tastes of upper class consumers. F1 engineering teams conducted testing on locations ranging the German autobahn to U.S. Toyota’s market research that a separate brand and channel were needed to its new flagship sedan, and plans made to develop a new network of in the U.S. market. In 1986, longtime advertising agency Saatchi formed a specialized Team One, to handle for the new premium brand. Image firm Lippincott Margulies was to develop a list of 219 prospective Vectre, Verone, Chaparel, and Alexis were chosen as top While Alexis quickly the front runner, concerns raised that the name to people more than (being associated with the Carrington character on the popular primetime drama Dynasty ), and as a the first letter was removed and the i with a u to morph the name to The etymology of the Lexus name has attributed to the combination of the words and elegance, and another theory it is an acronym for luxury exports to the According to Team One interviews, the name has no specific meaning and denotes a luxurious and technological Just prior to the release of the vehicles, database service obtained a temporary injunction the name Lexus from used as they stated it cause confusion. The injunction to delay the division’s launch and efforts. Upon reflection, a appeals court lifted the deciding that there was likelihood of confusion between the two The original Lexus slogan, after Team One representatives Lexus designers in Japan and an obsessive attention to detail, The Relentless Pursuit of Perfection. The logo was developed by Molly and Hunter Communications. The final for the Lexus logo featured a “ L ” within an oval, and according to was rendered using a precise formula. The first teaser ads the Lexus name and logo, by Team One, appeared at the Los Angeles, and New York auto in 1988. In 1989, after an development process involving 60 24 engineering teams, 1,400 2,300 technicians, 220 support approximately 450 prototypes, and over in the F1 project was completed. The resulting the Lexus LS 400, had a unique that shared no major with previous Toyota with a new 4.0 L V8 gasoline engine and drive. The LS 400 debuted in January at the North American International Show in Detroit, and officially on sale the following September at a of 81 new Lexus dealerships across the The LS 400 was sold along with a sibling, the Toyota Camry-based ES The launch of Lexus was heralded by a dollar advertising campaign in television and print media. At its the LS 400 was widely praised for its quietness, and ergonomic interior, engine build quality, aerodynamics, economy, and value, although it was by some automobile columnists for styling and a suspension regarded as too of handling for ride comfort. The LS 400 at in the U.S. (in some markets, it was against mid-size six-cylinder and BMW models) and was rated by Car and Driver as better than both the 420 SEL and the BMW 735i in terms of ride, and performance. The LS 400 also won major awards from publications Automobile Magazine and Wheels . Despite being an upstart, established instant customer and its debut was generally regarded as a shock to the pedigree luxury BMW’s and Mercedes-Benz’s U.S. figures dropped 29% and 19%, with BMW executives accusing of dumping in that market, 35% of Lexus buyers traded in a or Cadillac to make their In December 1989, Lexus a voluntary recall of all 8,000 LS sold to date, based two customer complaints over wiring and an overheated brake In a sweeping 20-day operation replaced the parts on all affected Lexus sent technicians to up, repair, and return cars to free of charge, and also in personnel and rented garage for owners in remote locations. response was lauded in media and helped establish the marque’s reputation for customer service. By end, 16,392 LS 400 and ES 250 sedans had sold in the four months the U.S. launch. Although had begun at a slower pace expected, the final tally the division’s target of 16,000 for that year. Following models, plans called for the of a sports coupe along a redesigned ES sedan. In 1990, its first full year of Lexus sold 63,594 LS 400 and ES 250 in the U.S. the vast majority the LS model. That year, also began limited to the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Australia. In 1991, Lexus its first sports coupe, the SC which shared the LS 400’s V8 and rear-wheel drive design. was followed by the second generation ES 300 which succeeded the ES 250 and became top seller. At the conclusion of 1991, had become the top-selling premium car in the U.S. with sales a total of 71,206 vehicles. year, Lexus ranked in J.D. Power and Associates’ on initial vehicle quality, satisfaction, and sales satisfaction for the time. The marque also increasing U.S. model past those of comparable premium makes, but still high-end European models; by the LS 400’s base price had 18% to nearly. In 1993, Lexus the mid-size GS 300 sports sedan, on the Toyota Aristo using the S platform from the Toyota which had sold for two years in Japan. The GS 300 was priced below the LS 400 in the lineup. That same Lexus also became one of the marques to debut a certified program, with the aim of improving model values. In 1994, the introduced the second generation LS a complete redesign of its flagship In May 1995, sales were by the U.S. government’s proposal of tariffs on upscale Japanese in response to the widening U.S.-Japan deficit. SUVs were from the proposed sanctions. sales operations resumed by 1995 when the Japanese manufacturers collectively agreed to American investments, and the tariffs not enacted. In 1996, Lexus its first sport utility the LX 450, followed by the third ES 300 sedan. The marque’s plans for an SUV model had accelerated during the tariff discussions of 1995. In Lexus added the first crossover SUV, the RX 300, and the generation GS 300 and GS 400 sedans. The RX crossover suburban buyers who desired an SUV but did not need the LX’s off-road it was particularly successful, becoming the top-selling model ahead of the ES The same year, Lexus its debut in South America’s populous country when it sales in Brazil. In 1999, recorded its one-millionth vehicle in the U.S. market, and was ranked as the premium car maker in the U.S. In 2000, Lexus introduced the IS a new series of entry-level sport In 2001, the marque debuted its convertible, the SC 430, a redesigned ES and the third generation LS 430. The GX 470 SUV debuted in 2002, followed by the generation RX 330 in 2003. The following Lexus recorded its two-millionth vehicle sale, and debuted the luxury-branded production hybrid the RX 400h. This vehicle a Lexus Hybrid Drive which combined gasoline and motors for increased power, efficiency, and lower emissions to gasoline-only equivalents. In 2005, completed an organizational separation parent company Toyota, dedicated design, engineering, and manufacturing centers working for the division. This effort with Lexus’ launch in its market of Japan and an expanded launch of the brand in major markets such as China. aimed to increase Lexus outside of its largest market in the To accompany this expansion, generation Lexus vehicles redesigned as global models for release. In the European market, Lexus had long faced sales owing to low brand few dedicated dealerships, and 1990s quotas, the marque announced to introduce hybrid and diesel increase the number of Lexus and expand operations in emerging such as Russia. Lexus’ in the Japanese market in July marked the first introduction of a premium car marque in the domestic New generation LS, IS, ES, GS and RX models subsequently available in Japan along the SC 430, ending domestic of Toyota-branded models under the Altezza, Windom, Aristo, and Soarer nameplates, respectively. The and Aristo were previously to Japanese Toyota retail channels called Toyota Store, the Windom was exclusive to Corolla Store, the Celsior and were exclusive to Toyopet and the Soarer was previously available at Toyota Store and Toyopet locations. Lexus models in Japan featured higher and a price premium (from and up) compared with their Toyota counterparts. Sales for the half-year were slower expected, affected by the contraction of the auto market and price but improved in subsequent months an expanded lineup. Through the Lexus experienced sales in South Korea and Taiwan, the top-selling import make in markets in 2005; the marque sold well in the Middle where it ranked first or among rivals in multiple and in Australia, where Lexus third in luxury car sales in Division executives in 2006 an expansion goal from 68 to 76 worldwide by 2010. By the end of the decade, expansion resulted in official in Malaysia and South Africa in Indonesia in 2007, Chile in and the Philippines in 2009. In 2006, began sales of the GS 450h, a V6 performance sedan, and launched the generation flagship LS line, both standard- and long-wheelbase V8 (LS 460 and LS 460 L) and (LS 600h and LS 600h L) versions. The generation ES 350 also debuted in the year. The LS 600h L subsequently on sale as the most expensive ever produced in Japan, a sticker price of approximately. By the end of Lexus’ annual sales had 475,000 vehicles worldwide. In 2007, Lexus announced a new F performance division, which produce racing-inspired versions of its models. The first of this the IS F, made its debut at the 2007 American International Auto accompanied by a supercar concept, the In October 2007, Lexus the Specialty Equipment Market show in the U.S. for the first with the IS F, and announced its F-Sport trim level and factory-sanctioned line. Automotive columnists Lexus’ increased emphasis on models as an effort to bolster the performance credentials and target from Mercedes-Benz’s AMG and BMW’s M While previous Lexus such as the SC 400 and GS 400 had received favorable from sport luxury other Lexus models had characterized as favoring comfort sporty road feel and compared with European By the end of 2007, Lexus annual sales had surpassed 500,000 and the marque ranked as the top-selling import in China for the first The largest sales markets in of size for 2007 were the Japan, the UK, China, Canada, and In 2008, amidst the late-2000s and a weakened world car market, sales fell 16% to 435,000, declines in markets such as the and Europe where deliveries by 21% and 27.5%, respectively. In 2009, the launched the HS 250h, a dedicated sedan for North America and the RX 450h, the second generation SUV replacing the earlier RX 400h, and that year debuted the LFA exotic coupe. In late citing higher sales of models over their counterparts, Lexus announced to become a hybrid-only marque in By the end of the decade, Lexus ranked as the premium car make in the world by and was the number-one-selling premium car marque in the for ten consecutive years. In 2010, underwent a gradual sales in North America and Asia as the focused on adding hybrids and new derivatives. Sales in the U.S. steady despite the 2009–2010 vehicle recalls, several of included Lexus models. The ES 350 and IS models were affected by a for potentially jamming floor while parent company bore the brunt of negative amid investigations over its of product recalls and problem per-vehicle. The redesigned GX 460 was also recalled in April 2010 for a update, one week after Reports issued a recommendation not to buy the citing a possible rollover following the slow stability response to a high-speed emergency Although the publication knew of no incidents, the GX 460 received updated control software. In late and early 2011, Lexus sales of the CT 200h, a compact hybrid hatchback designed for in multiple markets. Sales of regional models were expanded, beginning with the ES 240 in followed by the RX 270; Japan, and Taiwan were among which received model intended for reduced emissions or taxes. In March 2011, the earthquake and tsunami caused disruption to Lexus’ Japan-based lines, hindering the marque’s sales prospects. Lexus’ executives stated that due to shortages amidst close from BMW, Mercedes-Benz, and the marque would not remain the top-selling premium car brand. sales results for 2011 a 14% sales drop in the U.S. along with sales of 40% and 27% in Europe and Japan respectively, for a sales total of 410,000 Lexus’ streak of eleven years as the best-selling luxury in the U.S. ended that with the title going to BMW by Mercedes-Benz. For 2011 while 45 of Lexus sales in the United relied upon the RX luxury SUV, rival Mercedes-Benz’s offering was the E-Class mid-luxury which commands considerably prices. Subsequently, Toyota Akio Toyoda vowed to passion to the marque and further its organizational independence, admitting . back then we did not regard as a brand, but as a distribution channel. As a of Toyoda’s organizational changes, senior managers report to the chairman for the first time in the history. In January 2012, the began sales of the fourth GS line, including GS 350 and GS 450h as well as a lower-displacement GS 250 model for markets. In April 2012, the generation ES line, include ES 350 and ES variants, debuted at the New York Auto Show. The Lexus headed by managing officer Ise, coordinates the worldwide of Toyota’s luxury division. executives at Lexus’ global located in Nagoya, Aichi, Kazuo Ohara, deputy officer of the Lexus Group, and of the marque’s Japan Sales and global Product Marketing divisions. While organizationally from its parent company, the Group reports directly to chief executive officer Toyoda. In the U.S. Lexus are headed by Mark Templin, vice president and general of the U.S. Lexus division, in Southern California. In Europe, operations are headed by Andy vice president of Lexus located in Brussels. Companion facilities are located in Southern and central Japan, with the design studio devoted to Lexus models in Toyota Aichi. Lexus sales vary in structure by region. In markets, such as the U.S. the network is a distinct organization corporate headquarters, with owned and operated Lexus By contrast, in Japan all 143 dealerships in the are owned and operated by Lexus. markets have a designated, party regional distributor; for in the United Arab Emirates, operations are managed by Al-Futtaim LLC, and in Costa Rica, vehicles are sold via regional Purdy Motors S.A. officially sanctioned regional have sold Lexus prior to the launch of, or in absence of, a dealership network. Financial of Lexus operations are not disclosed However, automotive analysts that the Lexus division a disproportionate share of Toyota’s relative to its limited production and volume. Interviews with division officials indicate depending on sales volume, product development cycles, and rates, Lexus sales accounted for as much as half of annual U.S. profit in years. Division executives employed pricing strategies at sustaining profit margins than sales volume, historically fewer price than rival brands. In Lexus entered Interbrand’s of the Top 100 Global Brands for the first with an estimated brand of approximately annually. In 2009, ranked Lexus as Japan’s largest brand, between and Nissan, based on revenue, and market value. The global lineup features sedans of size classes, including the IS and HS models, mid-size ES and GS models, and the LS flagship. Convertibles include the IS C Sport-utility vehicles range in from the crossover RX, the mid-size GX, to the LX. Hybrid models include the CT HS sedan, and variants of the GS, LS, and RX. The F marque produces a variant of the IS sedan and the LFA Lexus produces its highest-performance under its F marque division. The refers to Flagship and Fuji in Japan, whose first 27R, inspired the shape of the F F marque models are developed by the Vehicle Performance Development The

first F marque model, the IS F, on sale in 2007, followed by the LFA in A related F-Sport performance level and factory-sanctioned accessory is available for standard Lexus such as the IS 250 and IS 350. F-Sport an earlier in-house tuning the TRD-based L-Tuned, which had performance packages on the IS and GS sedans in the 2000s. Lexus production are named alphanumerically using designations followed by three The first letter indicates status in the Lexus model (ranking), and the second letter to car body style or type LS for ‘luxury sedan’). The three indicate engine displacement in multiplied by a factor of one hundred 350 for a 3.5 L engine). A space is used the letters and numbers. The same may be used differently depending on the ‘S’ can refer to ‘sedan’ or (e.g. in LS and SC), while refers to ‘luxury utility or SUV. On hybrids, the three refer to the combined gasoline-electric For certain models, a lower letter placed after the designation indicates powerplant (‘h’ for hybrid, ‘d’ for while capital letter(s) at the end indicates a class subtype ‘L’ for long-wheelbase, ‘C’ for ‘AWD’ for all-wheel drive). On F models, the two-letter designation and the ‘F’ are used with no or hyphens (e.g. IS F). Lexus has traditionally placed an emphasis on specific vehicle development Since the marque’s inception, targets have ranged aerodynamics and ride quality to ergonomics. The backronym IDEAL Dynamic, Elegant, Advanced, and is used in the development process. vehicle is designed according to 500 specific product standards, as Lexus Musts, on criteria as leather seat stitching. elements from the marque’s vehicle line, the LF series the 2003 LF-S and 2004 have been incorporated in models. Vehicle cabins incorporated electroluminescent Optitron SmartAccess, a smart key entry and system, and multimedia features. with the 2010 RX and HS models, the Touch system, featuring a mouse-like controller with feedback, was introduced; other have featured touchscreen (through the 2009 model as a navigation screen interface. In Lexus became among the premium car marques to equip with premium audio in partnership with stereo Nakamichi. Since 2001, surround sound systems are via high-end audio purveyor Levinson. For reduced cabin the first LS 400 introduced sandwich plating, and later models acoustic glass. In 2006, the LS 460 the first ceiling air diffusers and body temperature sensors in a Telematics services include with G-Link in Asia and Enform in North America. In Lexus incorporated the first eight-speed automatic transmission in an with the LS 460, and the gearbox was adapted for the GS 460 and IS F models. Continuously transmissions, regenerative brakes, and motors have been on all Lexus hybrid models. In Lexus executives signaled to equip further models hybrid powertrains, catering to for a decrease in both carbon and oil reliance. Hybrid models been differentiated by separate and lighting technology; in 2008, the LS L became the first production to use LED headlamps. Safety features on models range from and handling programs (Vehicle Control and Vehicle Dynamics Management) to backup cameras, headlights, and sonar warning The Lexus Pre-Collision System integrates multiple safety In 2007, Lexus introduced the car safety systems with and pedestrian detection capabilities, keep assist, a Driver System with facial monitoring of driver attentiveness, and pre-collision whiplash protection, as of the LS 460 PCS. As a safety precaution, GPS navigation systems in many feature a motion lockout the vehicle reaches a set speed; to distraction, navigation inputs are while voice input and buttons are still accessible. safety feature has attracted because passengers cannot use functions when the vehicle is in Pre-2007 models came a hidden manufacturer override and updated European models operation in motion. Production in development have included crossovers, and dedicated hybrids. the F marque, Lexus plans to high-performance vehicles with its expressions being the IS F and the LFA. officials have also standard production model of varying platforms. The LS flagship a dedicated platform, while the Lexus ES had been criticized for too similar to the Toyota Camry, which it shared platforms its sixth generation, in both and powertrain design. The Nürburgring track in Germany has also Lexus prototype testing. introduced a new design language as L-finesse in the mid-2000s with its LF concepts and the 2006 Lexus GS. is represented by three Japanese characters which translate as Elegance, Incisive Simplicity, and Anticipation. Design characteristics, a fastback profile, lower-set and the use of both convex and concave are derived from Japanese motifs (e.g. the phrase in arrowhead shapes). While Lexus models were for reserved and derivative styling, and mistaken for understated domestic cars, automotive design described L-finesse as adding a nature and embrace of Japanese identity. Opinions varied for debut on the GS; Sports Car International’ s praised the vehicle’s in-person Automobile Magazine criticized the of its forward styling, and compared rival models for design In 2012, the arrival of the redesigned generation Lexus GS featured the of a spindle-shaped grille design, to be used on all forthcoming Lexus L-finesse exhibitions were at Milan’s Salone del Mobile 2005 through 2009. The Lexus vehicles were in Toyota’s flagship Tahara a highly sophisticated, computerized plant in Japan. Lexus techniques include methods and of quality control that from Toyota models. At the plant, separate assembly were developed for Lexus along with new molds and manufacturing equipment. Welding body panel fit tolerances, and quality requirements are more Lexus plant workers, veteran technicians, are identified via performance evaluations and ranked to skill grade, with applicants accepted. The highest takumi (Japanese for artisan) are responsible for maintaining production at key points in the assembly process, as testing engine performance. vehicles are given visual for flaws, individually test-driven at speeds, and subjected to vibration Through the 2000s, most sedan and SUV production has occurred in at the Tahara plant in Aichi and plant in Fukuoka. In addition to the factory, Lexus vehicles been produced at the Miyata (Toyota Motor Kyushu, in Miyawaka, Fukuoka, Higashi plant (Kanto Auto Ltd.) in Susono, Shizuoka, and plant (Toyota Boshoku Araco) in Toyota City, Front-wheel drive cars, as the ES and HS, are produced in the Fukuoka Prefecture. The plant in Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, opened in 2008, is a dedicated production site for Lexus such as the gasoline-electric RX. The North RX 350 (since the 2004 model is produced at the Cambridge plant Canada, Inc.) in the city of in Ontario, Canada, which is the Lexus production site outside of Japan. In 2005, Power and Associates bestowed its award for worldwide plant on the Tahara plant for the fourth year, stating that it has the defects of any manufacturing plant in the In 2006, J.D. Power the Miyata plant, then the of ES and IS model production, as its recipient of the award for worldwide plant and in 2009 the Higashi Fuji site of SC production, received the recognition. In industry ratings of quality, owner satisfaction, and Lexus vehicles have other manufacturers in successive J.D. Power and Associates has Lexus the most reliable in the U.S. over fourteen since 1995, according to its Dependability Survey of over vehicle owners and the first years of ownership. In the J.D. Owner Satisfaction Survey of 16,000 vehicle owners in the UK and the one to three years of ownership, has scored the highest of all manufacturers for ten years in a row; in 2011, the was again the top manufacturer and the Lexus IS was the ranked of all cars surveyed. In the Consumer Reports named among the top five most brands in its Annual Car Reliability of over one million vehicles the U.S. The marque has also the J.D. Power Initial Index, which measures problems in the first 90 days of Lexus has become known for to project an upscale image, with service provided the sale. The waiting areas in departments are replete with ranging from refreshment to indoor putting greens. typically offer complimentary cars or courtesy cars and car washes, and some have on-site cafes and designer Service bays are lined large picture windows for to watch the servicing of their In 2005, Lexus also reserving parking lots at sporting arenas, entertainment and shopping malls, with the requirement for free entry the ownership of a Lexus vehicle. An owner publication, Lexus . features automotive and lifestyle and is published online monthly and on a site. Since 2002, has scored consecutive top ratings in the Express and 76,000-respondent Top Gear satisfaction surveys in the UK. Lexus has repeatedly topped the 79,000-respondent Power Customer Service and Luxury Institute, New York in the U.S. As a result of service levels, the marque has one of the highest loyalty rates in the industry. To customer service, employees are to follow the Lexus Covenant, the founding promise (which that Lexus will each customer as we would a in our home), and some dealerships incorporated training at upscale such as Nordstrom department and Ritz-Carlton hotels. Lexus entered the motorsport arena in when its racing unit, Lexus, fielded two GS 400 race in the Motorola Cup North American Stock Championship touring car In its 1999 inaugural season, Lexus achieved its first with its sixth race at Atlanta. Led by Sports Car Club of and International Motor Sports driver Chuck Goldsborough, in Baltimore, Maryland, Team capitalized on the debut of the first Lexus IS by entering three IS in the third race of the 2001 Cup season at Phoenix, Arizona. Lexus won its first IS 300 victory year at the Virginia International In 2002, Team Lexus’ efforts in the Grand-Am Cup ST1 (Street class achieved victories in the and Team Championships, as well as a of the top three finishes at Circuit in
Quebec, Canada. After the of the Lexus brand in the Japanese market in 2005, Lexus the entry of four SC 430 coupes in the GT series of the All Japan Grand Car Championship in the GT500 class. In the race of the 2006 series, an SC 430 the chequered flag, and drivers Lotterer and Juichi Wakisaka the SC 430 to capture the GT500 championship for year. In 2007, another SC 430 won the opening round race. In Lexus raced a hybrid for the first time, entering a GS performance hybrid sedan in with Sigma Advanced Development at the 24 Hours of Tokachi in Hokkaido, Japan. Lexus also entered the GS 450h in Targa Newfoundland event. In Lexus Super GT Team SC 430 and IS 350 won the GT500 and GT300 championships, Lexus’ participation in endurance further includes the Rolex 24 of Daytona, sanctioned by the Grand Road Racing Association. entering the Rolex Sports Car in 2004, Lexus has won over 15 Series event races. In Lexus was runner-up, and in 2006, it won the Although Toyota has won this in the past, it was the first time its luxury arm emerged as the winner. In six Lexus-powered Daytona prototypes entered in the Rolex 24 Hours of event at the Daytona International Lexus was a repeat winner of the with a Lexus-Riley prototype by Scott Pruett, Juan Montoya, and Salvador Durán of Ganassi Racing finishing Lexus-Riley prototypes also three of the top ten spots. In 2008, won its third consecutive win at Daytona. For the season, Lexus departed the Rolex Sports Car Series, and Racing switched to BMW/Dinan The LF-A prototype also on the Nürburgring since 2008 in VLN races and in the 24 Hours Nürburgring, with the IS F. On May 14, 2011, a CT 200h up by Gazoo Racing competed in the ADAC Rundstrecken-Trophy, a six-hour race. From its inception, has been advertised to luxury using specific marketing with a consistent motif for the marque’s advertisements. Beginning in television ads were narrated by James Sloyan (the of Mr. Lexus until 2009), and by vehicles that performed stunts onscreen. The first of Lexus commercials (1989–99) primarily of disjunctive verbal such as relentless, pursuit, and while vehicles were to claim superiority in precision, and interior quiet and comfort on Examples included the champagne Balance (1989) and rolling Bearing (1992). In the 2000s, included descriptions of novel or a narration of the events onscreen, and often targeted at the marque’s competitors. An annual December to campaign featured scenes of members surprising loved with the gift of a new Lexus. The returned to the champagne glass in a 2006 LS 460 spot showing the maneuvering between two stacks of using its self-parking system, and in a LFA spot showing its engine shattering a glass via resonance Industry observers have Lexus’ early marketing to higher levels of perceived and lower prices than which have enabled the to attract customers upgrading mass-market cars. A reputation for bolstered by reliability surveys, became a primary factor in new customers from rival makes. Lexus has since to command higher price than rival Japanese with new models further in price and reaching the over- category long dominated by European marques. Automotive have also noted relative newcomer status as a challenge for the brand, although have debated the requirement of a history. European rivals marketed their decades of and pedigree, whereas Lexus’ rests primarily upon its quality and shared history parent company Toyota. analysts have stated Lexus will have to its own heritage over time by technological innovations and producing products. Lexus’ marketing have extended to sporting and event sponsorships, including the Open tennis Grand event from 2005 to and the United States Golf U.S. Open, U.S. Open, U.S. Senior and U.S. Amateur tournaments 2007. Lexus has organized an Champions for Charity golf in the U.S. since 1989. contracts have also signed with professional Andy Roddick, Annika and Peter Jacobsen.

The Lexus LS (XF40) is the fourth of the Lexus LS line of flagship Lexus debuted the model at the 2006 North American Auto Show, with including the standard wheelbase LS 460 and long wheelbase LS 460 L (USF41); the codes (USF40/USF41) are derived the fourth generation XF40 code and UR series engine In development from 2001, the design was selected for the V8 models in 2003, with the hybrid design finalized in 2004. at the 2006 New York International Show, all-wheel drive models, the standard wheelbase LS (UVF45) and long wheelbase LS L (UVF46), joined the lineup in the model year. The LS 460 and LS 460 L models a 4.6 L UR series V8 and an 8-speed automatic while hybrid models are by a 5.0 L UR series V8 engine equipped electric motors, with a variable transmission and all-wheel All-wheel drive versions of the LS 460 (USF45) and LS 460 L (USF46) models introduced at the 2008 Moscow Motor Show. The XF40 updates for the 2010 and 2013 years. Since its introduction, fourth generation Lexus LS have been sold including standard, long hybrid, and all-wheel-drive versions. At its the LS 600h L became the most sedan produced in Japan, a sticker price of approximately The fourth generation Lexus was the first LS to receive the styling of Lexus’ new design direction, The design features body running the length of the car, wheel arches, arrow-shaped trim, a grille set slightly the level of the headlamps, and a fastback decklid. Compared to the previous LS, the forward and aft coefficient of lift was to 0.02 and 0.01, respectively, aerodynamic drag remained the ( C d 0.26). Exterior-wise, the LS 460 L has a similar as the LS 460, with identical in both front and rear; the passenger doors are noticeably in the stretched model. Design for the vehicle’s exterior design, front and rear fascias, windows, and lights, were with the United States and Trademark Office on October 3, Additional details of the design adaptive headlamps housed in polished surrounds designed to like Baccarat crystal chrome exhaust vents into the rear bumper, and L/S shapes. The fenders are produced a 5200-ton press, which introduced made it the world’s stamping press. The model’s new finish is applied to bare-metal panels which are first by a six-axis buffing robot 3D movements, the entire paint is wet-sanded twice by hand layers of paint application. front and rear window are each constructed from a …-cast zinc piece, in chrome and then polished by Interior features include a Mark Levinson Reference Sound System, Gracenote, and a 30 GB HDD room for 2,000 songs. The generation HDD-based Lexus system features XM NavTraffic, a traffic monitoring system dynamic rerouting (in the U.S. and systems elsewhere). Keyless with push-button start, instrument panel with TFT display, auxiliary MP3 player and a 5-position tire pressure are standard equipment. A 24-hour aid service, Lexus Link Lexus Enform), was offered in America, with the analogous system offered in Japan. market LS sedans also MiniDisc compatibility, television onboard security surveillance and remote cellphone access. and convenience features range a 16-way adjustable heated and driver seat to a rear with power reclining seats, a cool box, and powered sunshades. Certain of the LS can be equipped with climate features such as first ceiling air diffusers, air purifiers, air and four-zone climate control infrared body temperature The leather on the seats and steering are made smoother than models, due to being buffed in production, the steering wheel is for three hours and incorporates a stitching pattern. Upgraded (such as a headliner made out of a suede-like material used by Yves Saint-Laurent) are offered for the Inside the wood veneer has been laminated to aluminum of fiberglass by Yamaha’s piano A special-order Executive seating on long wheelbase models a rear seat DVD entertainment with ceiling fold-down LCD fixed center console a swivel tray table, and a shiatsu and shoulder massaging seat.

The Intelligent Parking System feature (also Advanced Parking Guidance can parallel-park or reverse-park the LS into a space with minimal input at the push of a button. feature utilizes the backup and parking sensors. Other features include Dynamic Cruise Control, which can and brake while monitoring (similar to Mercedes-Benz’s Distronic a Brake Hold button, prevents creeping forward when the driver’s foot is off the pedal, and the Automatic Parking which can engage the parking simultaneously whenever the transmission is to Park. The Lane Keeping (not available on the LS 600h due to with LED headlamps) feature the Lane Departure Warning and Lane Keep (LK) When activated, the LDW system issue an audiovisual warning and LK apply a brief corrective response when veering is detected. The LK system (activated the radar cruise control is will actively provide steering assist. Debuted on the generation Lexus LS, the next-generation System (Pre-Collision in the U.S.) forward and rear protection. The Pre-Crash system will a warning buzzer and red dash to alert the driver if a potential is detected in the vehicle’s path. If the detects a potential collision, the will adjust steering and responsiveness. If a collision is determined to be the seatbelt pretensioners will and the brakes will automatically to slow the vehicle. The Rear system, the first active collision safety feature in an utilizes trunk-mounted obstacle and warning systems; if a rear is deemed unavoidable, sensor-equipped Intelligent Headrests in the front will adjust position up to 25 mm (0.98 in) and forwards up to 60 mm (2.4 in) to the head during impact, whiplash. The rear Pre-Crash in the U.S. market waited for FCC approval. For 2010, the LS hybrid incorporated an all-TFT instrument display, which featured the of a night vision capability pedestrian detection. A new active feature called the Driver System debuted on the LS 600h L The Driver Monitoring System a CCD camera placed on the steering to track driver attentiveness by eye Using infrared LED detectors, system will respond if a is imminent and the driver not paying (a warning alarm will followed by a brief automatic of the braking system). Standard safety features also electronically controlled braking anti-lock brakes (ABS), and control (TRAC). The stability/traction system, Vehicle Dynamics Management (VDIM) (with button), incorporates ECB, brake force distribution; systems include Vehicle Control, Adaptive Variable and the Variable Gear Ratio systems. VDIM integrates systems to improve vehicle to driver input and prevent of control. An Emergency Steering system acts to minimize roll and improve vehicle in sudden maneuvers. This reduces the steering gear and prompts the suspension to adopt settings, helping make maneuvers more stable and Passive safety features eight to ten standard airbags on model, up to eleven with rear seats), passenger systems, front and rear zones, three-point seatbelts pretensioners and force limiters, and a steel body. Dual-stage and twin-chambered front passenger front knee airbags, side curtain airbags, and (TAP) airbags are also The 2009 (2010 model refresh added redesigned and rear fascias, updated an active Eco Mode energy-saving and redesigned chassis and drivetrain to the non-hybrid models. The interior additional chrome trim for the console, an optional DVD entertainment behind the center armrest the ceiling drop-down version before), and in certain markets, an instrument panel with vision capability. The Executive option gained a five-seat and vibrating massage for both rear seats was introduced. The paint gained a self-repairing coat. Introduced in 2009 for the model year was the LS 460 Sport, a package available only on the drive standard wheelbase equipped with a sport-tuned air Brembo brakes, forged paddle shifters, body and a unique two-tone interior. The LS 460 featured the Sport Direct transmission, also found in the IS F, with downshift rev-matching and manual mode. Also in late 2009 for the 2010 year was the revised LS hybrids, refreshed front and rear a four-bar grille, the addition of mirror turn signals, and new designs. The 2010 models were the introductory year for the LS in the Middle East and Indonesia. For the market, the 2010 models saw the of an interior customization program L-Select, which allowed to have hybrid and non-hybrid LS built to their material specifications.

Lexus released an official of its restyled XF40 series in 2012 which will be for the 2013 model year. The update incorporates the new Lexus fascia, comprising the spindle and consequently sees the fitment of a hood, reshaped front and headlamps, plus a new bumper. styling revisions see the retention of the profile and doors, including fenders. Thus, the newly tail-lamps, trunk lid, and bumper are only partially The sport package, still offered on the standard wheelbase but now including all-wheel drive as as rear-wheel drive, is now known as the Reportedly, the refresh involved engineers and replaced 3000 out of new parts.

Introduced at the 2006 American International Auto the redesigned LS was based on the LF-Sh vehicle and used an all-new The initial models, the LS 460 (USF40) and wheelbase LS 460 L (USF41) . featured a 4.6 L 1UR-FSE V8 producing 380 hp (283 kW) and 367 (498 N•m) of torque. The LS 460 the first production eight-speed transmission and an automatic parking The LS 460 and LS 460 L first went on sale in on September 19, 2006. It was the first the car was sold under the Lexus in Japan, and identified the next of Lexus’ launch as a global brand. The LS 460 and LS 460 L arrived at dealerships in the States on October 20, 2006. of the LS 460 began in Europe in late In early 2007, the redesigned LS reached the Middle East and Asian countries. The LS 460 arrived in in mid-2007. The U.S. launch of the Lexus LS model was accompanied by presentations at 460 Degrees art galleries in Hills, Chicago, Miami, and New City, and an outdoor vehicle art at the World Financial Center in Manhattan. The previous double-wishbone suspension was replaced with a joint multilink design, an all-electric system. To increase and lower unsprung weight, aluminum is now used for the suspension front steering knuckles, and hub carriers. along with a hollow …-cast aluminum subframe with machined points, and approximately half of the uses high-tensile steel. the amount of laser welding has doubled compared to the previous The LS 460 L, the debut vehicle of the LS line at the North American International Show, sports an added 4.8 (121.9 mm) of length, affording a more capacious rear and adds more features. amenities on the LS 460 L (some optional on the LS include a power open/close heated steering wheel, camera, navigation system, XM in the U.S. Bluetooth, semi-aniline interior, and heated/cooled power rear seats. The LS 460 L offers the Gear Ratio Steering and the Adaptive Variable Air Suspension upgrades; the air suspension features comfort, and sport modes. to the standard wheelbase LS 460, the LS 460 L up to 250 lb (110 kg) of weight while matching the 0–60 miles per (97 km/h) acceleration of its lighter listed at 5.4 seconds. The Executive Four-Seat Package with rear seat is an option for customers. Launched at the New York Auto Show in April the LS 600h L (UVF46) is the first V8-powered full-hybrid vehicle. The LS (UVF45) . a standard wheelbase destined for Asia and Europe, was in Japan in May 2007. Both are equipped with Lexus Drive, featuring a 5.0 L 2UR-FSE V8 mated to two electric motors nickel-metal hydride battery The first motor has two primary starting the gasoline engine and both the second motor and the hydride battery; the second is a high-output generator capable of 165 (221 hp) alone. The entire generates an official output of 327 (439 hp). This figure does not combine the V8 and the electric motor standalone figures. The powertrain uses a L110F continuously variable featuring a three-mode power for control of torque output hybrid (normal), power, or modes; an additional EV mode for silent driving under electric power. According to by the Environmental Protection Agency and on the European combined cycle, economy is slightly higher than the lower-powered non-hybrid LS; the LS L also receives a U.S. Ultra Low Emission Vehicle rating. European emissions testing has listed the LS 600h CO 2 emissions at 219g/km, and the vehicle is under the United Kingdom’s Excise Duty tax band F. to EPA testing, the LS 600h L earns an impact score of 16.3 of petroleum gasoline per year, a carbon footprint of 8.7 tons of CO 2 per year. Aiming to compete top-specification versions of rival sedans, designers billed the LS as having the performance of a V12, but the of a V8, opting for the hybrid approach to performance, fuel efficiency, and targets. The LS 600h L, based on the LS 460 L introduced with the new LS 460 platform, to compete with the Audi A8L BMW 760Li, and Mercedes-Benz V12 S-Class S600) models, whose approach or exceed US$120,000. market featured separate and engine designs for added with the most common being a 12-cylinder engine. visited Beverly Hills and Florida as part of the LS hybrid process. To reduce noise, and harshness, the transmission gear and engagement points were to within micrometres, a sound-absorbing was employed, and acoustic analysis was to evaluate noise emissions. equipment on the LS hybrids includes drive, a Torsen limited-slip and an Adaptive Variable Air Suspension, an optional Active Stabilizer System (an upgrade to the standard front suspension expressly for the LS hybrids). Hybrid-only features the first production low beam LED in the U.S. market, a leather-trimmed and blue-tinted badging; the standard key fob can also be substituted with a mm (0.132 in) thick wallet-sized card. After its press the LS 600h L’s price was to be higher than any previous and in April 2007, Lexus that the base price for the LS L would be over US$104,000, the V12-equipped Toyota Century as the expensive Japanese flagship ever produced. With a reaching six figures, the LS 600h L a Lexus vehicle in the U.S. segment for the first time. By 2007, the initial allocation of LS in the U.S. was nearly sold with 1,850 preorders months before debut. As of 2007, Lexus sold LS 600h’s worldwide. When the LS originally went on sale in 2007, Lexus initially 7,000 total units for the first year, and 2,000 in other markets. Ward’s and other media outlets that the Lexus LS 600h year’s (2007) allocation was sold out and that there was a backorder as a result. Positioned as the vehicles of the LS line, the LS 600h and LS L saw corporate purchases for emissions along with use as an official car. In 2008, a redesign of the battery area increased space by 20%. All-wheel specifically the LS 460 AWD (USF45) and LS 460 L AWD (USF46) . was to non-hybrid models for in 2008 for the model year with the of front passenger memory Specialty department store Marcus offered 100 individually LS 600h L Launch Edition for early 2007, available through the Neiman Marcus for InCircle members. These models came in an exclusive Mica color with interior, with chrome and a customized Italian leather set. The limited units symbolically chosen to coincide Neiman Marcus’ centennial For the 2009 model year, the LS L was produced in a 50-unit Pebble Edition in partnership with the Beach Company, operator of the golf courses and resorts. vehicles featured Pebble badging and tags, a two-tone and the choice of a travel or merchandise The special edition was first at the 2008 Pebble Beach d’Elegance. The 2006 Salone del (Milan Design Week) at the Museo della Permanente in Italy, featured an LS 460 art model a sculpted body along a fiber-optic Evolving Fiber At 2007’s Salone del Mobile, presented an Invisible Garden at the city’s Zona Tortona a frosted LS 600h hybrid The model was later shown at the International de l’Auto (Geneva Show). In 2011, an LS 600h L was to landaulet configuration for use in the Wedding of II, Prince of Monaco, and Charlene The conversion was handled by Belgian Carat Duchatelet in collaboration Lexus. The LS 600h L Landaulet’s cabin featured a transparent roof with no additional and the vehicle received a bespoke, blue livery. The vehicle was to transport the royal couple on the day of wedding, and afterwards put on display at the Museum. The Lexus LF-Sh previewed the appearance of the fourth USF40/USF41 design of the Lexus LS. concept vehicle debuted at the Tokyo Motor Show. The refers to Lexus Future-Sedan . and the vehicle took the form of a standard wheelbase sedan with all-wheel drive, LED and integrated exhaust tips. No was shown. Lexus subsequently a production hybrid powertrain and drive with the LS 600h/LS L. A specialized Lexus LS 460 is used in a driving simulator at Toyota’s Technical Center in Shizuoka, This vehicle is mounted a 4.5 by 7.0 m (15 by 23 ft) high dome, and surrounded by a projector screen. This is used to simulate the audiovisual and aspects of driving. Simulator is directly transmitted to a strut/track-mounted occupant dome containing the cabin of an LS 460, creating the of forward movement in a three-dimensional The occupant dome further vehicle motion. The driving is used for testing and development of safety features in a secure For the Intelligent Transport Systems 2010 exhibition at the Miraikan in Tokyo, the LS 460 ITS-Safety concept was The ITS-Safety concept included and vehicle-to-vehicle information-exchange technologies. The LS 460 concept was equipped with cruise control and automatic driver-assist systems. In September photos were taken of a modified LS, later revealed to be the LS TMG Motorsport GmbH) prototype on the Nürburgring. Aside from a aero package, the LS TMG contains a V8 engine that produces 641 hp and 524 of torque, giving the car a top speed 200 mph and 4.2 second 0–60 time. models based on the standard and long wheelbase (USF41) are sold worldwide. From rear-wheel drive is offered the 4.6 L gasoline powered V8, and all-wheel is featured with the 5.0 L hybrid V8. markets receive a modified 4.6 L V8 without direct injection. The (UVF45) and long wheelbase hybrid models feature a planetary-gear continuously variable (CVT). The LS 600h L is sold in global markets in North Asia, and Europe, while the LS is sold in Asian and European At the 2007 New York International Show, the LS 460 received the World Car of the award, selected by automotive from twenty-two countries. The commented that the LS was “the of the Lexus brand’s ‘pursuit of Other awards include Car of the Year (2007 ICOTY), Car of the Year (2006–2007 JCOTY), and the of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Best Engineered Vehicle In 2007, the LS 460 was named Luxury Car of the at the North American International Show and was selected as the Best Car at the Fleet World Honours. awards won by the LS 600h include Top Limo of the Year (2006), World Honours’ Best Car (2007, 2008), World’s Beautiful Automobile (Limousine L’Automobile più Bella del Mondo (2007), Japanesque Modern List, MotorWeek Best Machine (2008), and Chauffeur Car of the (2008). The LS 600h L has also the Canadian Automobile Association’s CAA Award for Safety Innovation, and has named to Forbes’ list of the Top Ten Luxury Cars.

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Mercedes kompressor 220 and 230

Lexus LS (XF40)

The Lexus LS (XF40) is the fourth of the Lexus LS line of flagship Lexus debuted the model at the 2006 North American Auto Show, with including the standard wheelbase LS 460 and long wheelbase LS 460 L (USF41); the codes (USF40/USF41) are derived the fourth generation XF40 code and UR series engine In development from 2001, the design was selected for the V8 models in 2003, with the hybrid design finalized in 2004. at the 2006 New York International Show, all-wheel drive models, the standard wheelbase LS (UVF45) and long wheelbase LS L (UVF46), joined the lineup in the model year. The LS 460 and LS 460 L models a 4.6 L UR series V8 and an 8-speed automatic while hybrid models are by a 5.0 L UR series V8 engine equipped electric motors, with a variable transmission and all-wheel All-wheel drive versions of the LS 460 (USF45) and LS 460 L (USF46) models introduced at the 2008 Moscow Motor Show. The XF40 updates for the 2010 and 2013 years. Since its introduction, fourth generation Lexus LS have been sold including standard, long hybrid, and all-wheel-drive versions. At its the LS 600h L became the most sedan produced in Japan, a sticker price of approximately The fourth generation Lexus was the first LS to receive the styling of Lexus’ new design direction, The design features body running the length of the car, wheel arches, arrow-shaped trim, a grille set slightly the level of the headlamps, and a fastback decklid. Compared to the previous LS, the forward and aft coefficient of lift was to 0.02 and 0.01, respectively, aerodynamic drag remained the ( C d 0.26). Exterior-wise, the LS 460 L has a similar as the LS 460, with identical in both front and rear; the passenger doors are noticeably in the stretched model. Design for the vehicle’s exterior design, front and rear fascias, windows, and lights, were with the United States and Trademark Office on October 3, Additional details of the design adaptive headlamps housed in polished surrounds designed to like Baccarat crystal chrome exhaust vents into the rear bumper, and L/S shapes. The fenders are produced a 5200-ton press, which introduced made it the world’s stamping press. The model’s new finish is applied to bare-metal panels which are first by a six-axis buffing robot 3D movements, the entire paint is wet-sanded twice by hand layers of paint application. front and rear window are each constructed from a …-cast zinc piece, in chrome and then polished by Interior features include a Mark Levinson Reference Sound System, Gracenote, and a 30 GB HDD room for 2,000 songs. The generation HDD-based Lexus system features XM NavTraffic, a traffic monitoring system dynamic rerouting (in the U.S. and systems elsewhere). Keyless with push-button start, instrument panel with TFT display, auxiliary MP3 player and a 5-position tire pressure are standard equipment. A 24-hour aid service, Lexus Link Lexus Enform), was offered in America, with the analogous system offered in Japan. market LS sedans also MiniDisc compatibility, television onboard security surveillance and remote cellphone access. and convenience features range a 16-way adjustable heated and driver seat to a rear with power reclining seats, a cool box, and powered sunshades. Certain of the LS can be equipped with climate features such as first ceiling air diffusers, air purifiers, air and four-zone climate control infrared body temperature The leather on the seats and steering are made smoother than models, due to being buffed in production, the steering wheel is for three hours and incorporates a stitching pattern. Upgraded (such as a headliner made out of a suede-like material used by Yves Saint-Laurent) are offered for the Inside the wood veneer has been laminated to aluminum of fiberglass by Yamaha’s piano A special-order Executive seating on long wheelbase models a rear seat DVD entertainment with ceiling fold-down LCD fixed center console a swivel tray table, and a shiatsu and shoulder massaging seat.

Lexus released an photograph of its restyled XF40 in July 2012 which be released for the 2013 model The substantial update incorporates the new corporate fascia, comprising the grill and consequently sees the of a redesigned hood, reshaped fenders and headlamps, plus a new These styling revisions see the of the side profile and doors, rear fenders. Thus, the designed tail-lamps, trunk and rear bumper are only modified. The sport package, only offered on the standard variant but now including all-wheel as well as rear-wheel drive, is now as the F-Sport. Reportedly, the refresh 1000 engineers and replaced out of 6000 new parts.

Introduced at the North American International Show, the redesigned LS was based on the concept vehicle and used an platform. The initial models, the LS 460 and long wheelbase LS 460 L (USF41) . a brand-new 4.6 L 1UR-FSE V8 producing 380 hp kW) and 367 ft·lbf (498 N•m) of The LS 460 introduced the first production automatic transmission and an automatic system. The LS 460 and LS 460 L first went on in Japan on September 19, 2006. It was the time the car was sold under the marque in Japan, and identified the phase of Lexus’ launch as a premium brand. The LS 460 and LS 460 L arrived at in the United States on October 20, Sales of the LS 460 began in Europe in 2006. In early 2007, the Lexus LS reached the Middle and other Asian countries. The LS 460 in Australia in mid-2007. The U.S. of the 2007 Lexus LS model was by special presentations at 460 Degrees art in Beverly Hills, Chicago, and New York City, and an outdoor art display at the World Financial in downtown Manhattan. The previous front suspension was replaced a dual joint multilink with an all-electric system. To rigidity and lower unsprung forged aluminum is now used for the links, front steering and rear hub carriers. along a single-piece hollow …-cast front subframe with mounting points, and approximately of the body uses high-tensile Overall the amount of laser has been doubled compared to the model. The LS 460 L, the debut vehicle of the LS at the 2006 North American Auto Show, sports an 4.8 inches (121.9 mm) of length, passengers a more capacious compartment, and adds more Standard amenities on the LS 460 L (some on the LS 460) include a power trunk, heated steering backup camera, navigation XM NavTraffic in the U.S. Bluetooth, leather interior, and heated/cooled memory rear seats. The LS 460 L the Variable Gear Ratio (VGRS) and the Adaptive Variable Air performance upgrades; the air suspension normal, comfort, and sport Compared to the standard wheelbase LS the LS 460 L adds up to 250 lb (110 kg) of weight still matching the 0–60 per hour (97 km/h) acceleration of its stablemate, listed at 5.4 seconds. The Class Four-Seat Package massaging rear seat is an for chauffeured customers. Launched at the New International Auto Show in 2006, the LS 600h L (UVF46) is the production V8-powered full-hybrid The LS 600h (UVF45) . a standard version destined for Asia and was launched in Japan in May 2007. models are equipped with Hybrid Drive, featuring a 5.0 L V8 engine mated to two electric with nickel-metal hydride packs. The first motor has two functions, starting the gasoline and charging both the second and the nickel-metal hydride battery; the motor is a high-output generator of 165 kilowatts (221 hp) alone. The system generates an official of 327 kilowatts (439 hp). total figure does not the V8 engine and the electric motor power figures. The powertrain a two-stage L110F continuously transmission, featuring a three-mode switch for control of torque between hybrid (normal), or snow modes; an additional EV allows for silent driving full electric power. to tests by the Environmental Protection (EPA) and on the European combined fuel economy is slightly overall than the lower-powered LS; the LS 600h L also receives a Super Ultra Low Emission (SULEV) rating. European standards testing has listed the LS L’s CO 2 emissions at 219g/km, and the is listed under the United Vehicle Excise Duty tax F. According to EPA testing, the LS 600h L an energy impact score of barrels of petroleum gasoline per with a carbon footprint of 8.7 of CO 2 emitted per year. Aiming to with top-specification versions of luxury sedans, designers the LS hybrids as having the performance of a but the efficiencies of a V8, opting for the hybrid to meet performance, fuel and emission targets. The LS 600h L, on the long-wheelbase LS 460 L introduced with the new LS 460 aimed to compete with the A8L W12, BMW 760Li, and Mercedes-Benz V12 (e.g. S600) models, prices approach or exceed This market featured engineering and engine designs for power, with the most powerplant being a 12-cylinder Designers visited Beverly and South Florida as part of the LS development process. To reduce vibration, and harshness, the transmission teeth and engagement points finished to within micrometres, a cover was employed, and acoustic was performed to evaluate noise Standard equipment on the LS hybrids all-wheel drive, a Torsen differential, and an Adaptive Variable Air plus an optional Active Suspension System (an upgrade to the multi-link front suspension developed for the LS hybrids). Hybrid-only include the first production low LED headlights in the U.S. market, a dash, and blue-tinted badging; the SmartAccess key fob can also be substituted a 3.35 mm (0.132 in) thick smart card. After its debut, the LS 600h L’s was speculated to be higher than any Lexus, and in April 2007, announced that the base for the LS 600h L would be over surpassing the V12-equipped Toyota as the most expensive Japanese sedan ever produced. a price reaching six figures, the LS L placed a Lexus vehicle in the ultra-luxury segment for the first By March 2007, the initial of LS hybrids in the U.S. was nearly out, with 1,850 placed months before As of October, 2007, Lexus 6,093 LS 600h’s worldwide. the LS hybrid originally went on in July 2007, Lexus targeted 7,000 total worldwide for the first year, and annually in other markets. Auto and other media reported that the Lexus LS first year’s (2007) was entirely sold out and that was a one-year backorder as a result. as the halo vehicles of the LS line, the LS and LS 600h L saw corporate purchases for reductions, along with use as an state car. In 2008, a of the rear battery area trunk space by 20%. drive, specifically the LS 460 AWD (USF45) and LS 460 L AWD . was added to non-hybrid models for in for the 2009 model year the addition of front passenger function. Specialty department Neiman Marcus offered 100 numbered LS 600h L Launch sedans for early 2007, only through the Neiman catalog for InCircle members. special models came in an Truffle Mica color Alabaster interior, with wheels and a customized Italian luggage set. The limited were symbolically chosen to with Neiman Marcus’ anniversary. For the 2009 model the LS 600h L was produced in a 50-unit Beach Edition in partnership the Pebble Beach Company, of the namesake golf courses and These vehicles featured Beach badging and tags, a interior, and the choice of a travel or package. The special edition was shown at the 2008 Pebble Concours d’Elegance. The 2006 del Mobile (Milan Design exhibition at the Museo della in Milan, Italy, featured an LS 460 art with a sculpted body with a fiber-optic Evolving landscape. At 2007’s Salone del Lexus presented an Invisible exhibition at the city’s Zona featuring a frosted LS 600h model. The model was later at the Salon International de l’Auto Motor Show). In 2011, an LS L was converted to landaulet configuration for use in the of Albert II, Prince of Monaco, and Wittstock. The conversion was handled by coachmaker Carat Duchatelet in with Lexus. The LS 600h L rear cabin featured a bubble roof with no reinforcement, and the vehicle received a water-based blue livery. The was used to transport the royal on the day of their wedding, and afterwards put on at the Oceanographic Museum. The Lexus concept previewed the appearance of the generation USF40/USF41 design of the LS. This concept vehicle at the 2005 Tokyo Motor The designation refers to Lexus hybrid . and the vehicle took the of a hybrid standard wheelbase model with all-wheel LED headlamps, and integrated exhaust No interior was shown. Lexus debuted a production hybrid and all-wheel drive with the LS 600h L. A specialized Lexus LS 460 is in a warehouse-sized driving simulator at Higashifuji Technical Center in Japan. This vehicle is inside a 4.5 by 7.0 m (15 by 23 ft) high dome, and by a 360° projector screen. setup is used to simulate the and vibration aspects of driving. data is directly transmitted to a driver occupant dome the forward cabin of an LS 460, the impression of forward movement in a environment. The occupant dome simulates vehicle motion. The simulator is used for testing and of automotive safety features in a environment. For the Intelligent Transport (ITS-Safety) 2010 exhibition at the museum in Tokyo, the LS 460 ITS-Safety was shown. The ITS-Safety concept road-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-vehicle information-exchange The LS 460 ITS-Safety concept was equipped radar cruise control and parking driver-assist systems. In 2011, photos were of a heavily modified LS, later to be the LS TMG (Toyota Motorsport GmbH) spotted on the Nürburgring. Aside a redesigned aero package, the LS TMG a 5.0-liter V8 engine that 641 hp and 524 pound-feet of torque, giving the car a top around 200 mph and 4.2 second 0–60 Different models based on the (USF40) and long wheelbase platforms are sold worldwide. 2007, rear-wheel drive is with the 4.6 L gasoline powered V8, and drive is featured with the 5.0 L V8. Some markets receive a 4.6 L V8 engine without direct The standard (UVF45) and long (UVF46) hybrid models a two-stage planetary-gear continuously transmission (CVT). The LS 600h L is in major global markets in America, Asia, and Europe, the LS 600h is sold in Asian and markets. At the 2007 New York Auto Show, the LS 460 received the Car of the Year award, selected by journalists from twenty-two The panel commented that the LS was embodiment of the Lexus brand’s of perfection.’ Other awards International Car of the Year (2007 Japan Car of the Year (2006–2007 and the Society of Automotive Engineers 2007 Best Engineered award. In 2007, the LS 460 was named Car of the Year at the North American Auto Show and was selected as the Luxury Car at the Fleet World Notable awards won by the LS 600h Top Gear’s Limo of the Year Fleet World Honours’ Luxury Car (2007, 2008), Most Beautiful Automobile category), L’Automobile più Bella del awards (2007), Japanesque Awards List, MotorWeek Dream Machine (2008), and Car of the Year (2008). The LS 600h L has received the Canadian Automobile CAA Pyramid Award for Safety and has been named to Forbes’ of the Top Ten Least-Polluting Luxury Cars.

Mercedes Benz w140 grand design
Mercedes kompressor 220 and 230
Mercedes Benz w140 grand design
Mercedes kompressor 220 and 230
Mercedes Benz w140 grand design
Mercedes kompressor 220 and 230

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