SClass history part IV | MercedesBenz Passion eBlog

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Mercedes-Benz S 500 306hp W220

S-Class history part IV

by Deppe | 27.Mai 2009

• W 140

• W 220 series

Mercedes-Benz S-Class, W 140 (1991 to 1998)

n March the new S-Class generation (W 140 series) its debut at the Geneva Motor The body design incorporated the traditional Mercedes-Benz stylistic and thus fitted unobtrusively the homogenous design of the passenger car series. As had already been the with the SL models in the R 129 series, the new S-Class the distinctive trademark grille was given a new stylistic while retaining the traditional shape.

This variation on a theme was designated the “integrated and with its much narrower frame the radiator shell was integrated into the engine For the first time, the Mercedes was positioned not on top of the radiator grille, but to the rear on the engine hood. The aim of the design concept of the new S-Class was to achieve a high degree of quality while at the same respecting a maximum of everyday

As with the predecessor models of the W 126 and generations of Mercedes-Benz premium-class before them, the normal was also accompanied by a long-wheelbase in which the additional 100 millimetres exclusively to increase legroom in the As far as the engine was concerned, initially units were available on the market, of which only the V8 four-valve M 119 was an old and familiar friend. As the 500 E of the mid-range W 124 series, the engine here was the so-called Einheitsdeckmotor engine) – a crankcase for both the 4.2 and assemblies – whose fully-electronic “LH Jetronic” injection system was via a hot-wire air mass sensor. The three engines were developed: Like the 5.0-liter the 4.2-liter four-valve V8 was based on the two-valve engine, and the six-cylinder engine with 3.2-liter was based on the 3.0-liter four-valve introduced two years earlier. An detail to note here is the model designation of the 3.2-liter and models did not reflect exactly the as had always been the case in the Instead, for the sake of homogeneity the 300 SE/SEL and 400 SE/SEL were

The twelve-cylinder

The 6.0-liter V12 M 120 engine was an new design, not just the first twelve-cylinder Mercedes-Benz passenger but also the most powerful car engine of its day, with a power output of 300 kW (408 With a peak torque of 580 metres, it reached the 500 Newton mark at 1600/min. As with the and the two V8 engines, the twelve-cylinder was also with four-valve technology, intake camshaft and an electronic system with hot-wire air sensor. With all engines a priority was placed on minimizing emissions and reducing fuel The new fully electronic ignition calculated the optimum ignition from 300 ignition maps, for each cylinder individually and to the limit in each case. The M 120 was the twelve-cylinder engine worldwide to this cylinder-selective anti-knock This alone made the high compression ratio of necessary for optimum use of fuel.

and drive management was also new. Here, all control communicated with one another via a data channel, which that the control units jointly active. This for rapidly warming up the catalytic on cold-starting the engine, for example, as as for acceleration skid control ASR and for the new friction torque control, maintained handling stability power-off situations on slippery surfaces.

The V12 offered the world’s catalytic converter unit for cars. With a seven-litre in order to avoid any excess consumption on account of the catalytic it ensured a high degree of stability. Thanks to an innovative involving a double-walled and triple-insulated manifold, as well as double-walled the ceramic catalytic converters – in insulating expandable matting – the optimum operating temperature in a short time.

Environmental

In addition to optimizing and reducing emissions, the W 140 series also a number of other details made it a pioneer for environmentally automotive production. It heralded the age of the (chlorofluorocarbons) car and set new standards in terms of The plastic components used not only recyclable and clearly they were also to a extent manufactured using plastics. In 1992 the W 140 series won an award from the US Environmental Agency, the “Stratospheric Ozone Award.”

Apart from fuel consumption and optimizing compatibility, development of the W 140 series a special emphasis on raising and safety to new levels of perfection. In respect, the meticulous design and of the running gear played a role. A newly developed wishbone front axle, the main point of load mounted on a subframe, provided suspension – a system designed to the body from audible and vibrations. Rear suspension was from the multi-link independent of the other passenger car series, radically revised in terms of location and modified in line the special requirements of the S-Class. To account of the significantly greater and transverse forces, the link was also redesigned. Of particular was the crossed design of the upper which allowed axle to be kept to a minimum in spite of the control arms.

In terms of active safety the saloons in the W 140 series were for their exceptionally good stability even on uneven surfaces, their low crosswind precise and responsive steering and which remained relatively by the size of payload. The brake for the eight and twelve-cylinder models was a innovation. By distributing more power to the rear wheels, it was to improve the fade resistance of the system and reduce wear to the wheel brakes.

High of ride comfort

Ride in the W 140 series was improved significantly again. Any tyre noise and transmitted to the passenger cell largely reduced, the pitching on moving off and braking was minimized, motion on cornering or uneven surfaces was reduced and the steering was virtually insensitive to jolts from the road. A so-called steering” with speed-sensitive moment was fitted as standard to the and twelve-cylinder variants, reducing the effort required by the driver at low for example when parking.

had already been taken to standards in the predecessor model but here numerous measures further improvements. The new body for example, provided even safety in all types of accidents. And a of small design appointments to reduce hazards from impact points also added protection to other users.

The first soundproofed windows to be fitted to a passenger car also made a significant to improving comfort and incorporated a of safety and comfort features. avoided the tendency to fog or ice up and reduced gave better heat as well as soundproofing from noise, improved external air and eliminated wind noise by window seals.

Two further details – folding exterior and extendable guide rods to with reversing – gave additional assistance when in small spaces with visibility. The electrically-operated exterior could be folded back to extra space when in tight situations by means of a switch on the centre console, the switch serving also to the mirrors correctly. In order to with judging distances to when performing reversing two extendable guide rods integrated into the rear to left and right. Two seconds selecting reverse gear, the operated 65-millimeter-long chrome automatically extended vertically, again eight seconds a new gear had been selected.

for Europe

At the Paris Motor in October 1992, the 300 SE 2.8 and 300 SD Turbodiesel were introduced, adding two and particularly economical variants to the range. The 300 SD attracted particular – a vehicle that had been to the USA since October 1991, but was now the first diesel model in the to become available in Europe. The 300 SD was by a 3.5-liter six-cylinder engine exhaust-gas turbocharger, a unit was in principle the same as the one used in the model from the W 126 series, but now in a version delivering 110 kW (150 Like the 300 SE, the second new arrival, the 300 SE offered a six-cylinder in-line with four-valve technology – a member of the M 104 family of engines. The developed 2.8 litre variant was from the same point in in the W 124 series also and was equipped a microprocessor-controlled direct injection in which the hot-wire air mass had been replaced by a hot-film air sensor. In addition to the two new models, the and twelve-cylinder versions appeared in with revised engines. All units did away with enrichment under full resulting in a minor loss of but bringing benefits in terms of

In June 1993 the model were changed to come in with other series in the car range; the “S” was now placed before the number, and suffixes such as “D” and “L” were omitted. The 500 SE, for example, the S 500, and according to the new system of the 600 SEL was renamed the S 600 long. Ever the trunk lid has documented only the and engine displacement and not the body (normal or long-wheelbase version) – was entirely apparent to anyone a closer look. The most changes came in redesignating the and six-cylinder models. Instead of the used hitherto, which had rounded off to full hundreds in to enhance the uniformity of the overall the figures used corresponded to the displacement values. Thus the 300 SE for became the S 320 and the 300 SD was now known as the S 350 Turbodiesel. In to these purely formal the two 3.2-liter models also from a number of technical The previously used engine was with a revised version had already been in service October 1992 in the W 124 mid-range and now also featured a variable-resonance manifold and a direct injection with hot-film air flow These improvements permitted an in torque and meant both output and maximum torque be achieved at lower engine Thanks also to an additional in friction losses, fuel was reduced by a total of 7.5 percent and performance marginally improved.

Discreet revisions

At the Geneva Show of March 1994 the saloons were presented discreet stylistic modifications. A of modified details gave the illusion of a lighter, better and more dynamic appearance – though external dimensions unchanged. This was achieved by a “tucking-in” of the lower parts of the and side skirts and by the horizontal of these surfaces by means of a running all the way round. The effect was by modifying the design of the headlamps and protection grille. In the modified with optimized variable-focus which increased light by 60 percent, the dipped-beam compartment was no separated by a central bar from the compartment, thus lending the of greater breadth. This was underlined by the addition of colourless covers for the front turn lamps. The six and eight-cylinder models also given a newly more slender radiator with a vertical articulation at the For the V12 models there was also a version with chrome-plated fins and appreciably broader frame. Formal modifications to the end were also a significant in the harmonious overall image of the For example, the lower radii of the lid joints were rounded off in the style as the coupe models. The band was made broader the rear lamps and shaped to fit the new design of the rear lights. served to flatten off the height of the and to make the rear end as a whole broader and lower set.

May 1995 the ultrasonic reversing aid was available as an option. Ultrasonic emitted by the system were by any obstacle encountered and the distance vehicle and obstacle was then by an electronic control unit. and receivers of the ultrasonic signals combined in sensors integrated front and rear bumpers, diminishing in any way the protective function of the PARKTRONIC was fitted as standard to the V12 models from 1995 At the same time, the now superfluous rods in the rear fenders discontinued in all S-Class limousines.

engines

Since the model measures introduced in 1994 affected design, the eight and models saw a number of technical in September 1995. A completely new automatic transmission with converter lock-up clutch – a that had been fitted to the S 600 since May 1995 – now replaced the transmission with hydraulic in the saloons. At the heart of this miracle was an electronic transmission unit which adapted rapidly and automatically to any given situation and which continuously data with the electronic management system. In addition to pioneering innovations, the new automatic was also much more and lighter than were five-speed transmissions. To further fuel consumption and reduce emissions the engines underwent revisions. The two V8 engines were a modified crankshaft, an optimized control system, lighter dedicated ignition coils for cylinder and an improved electronic management system of the Motronic ME 1.0 which integrated a hot-film air sensor in the place of the hot-wire air sensor. Modifications to the V12 engine less extensive and affected the arrangement of the ignition coils and the engine management system. to the various modifications to the engine and the of the new automatic transmission, fuel for the V8 and V12 models could be cut by seven on average without any loss in and exhaust emissions by over 40 September 1995 also saw the of the Electronic Stability Program as an option for all S-Class models eight-cylinder engines, a system helped the driver to correct errors by automatically counteracting instability by sensor-controlled brake thus contributing to active ESP® was introduced as standard in both twelve-cylinder models. To with it was available as an option the S 420 and S 500. Then from 1996 on, ESP® was available all models when ordered automatic transmission.

In addition to the refinement package outlined and presented at the IAA in Frankfurt, in September a new S-Class variant was premiered: The S 600 Pullman. Developed as a new official saloon and equipped with protection technology, this continued a long Mercedes-Benz The special-production car measured 6,213 in length and was therefore exactly one longer than the long-wheelbase S The extra length served to the rear passengers, comfortably on seats arranged in vis-à-vis and separated if required from the compartment by a glass partition. The saloon in the W 140 series was also as both S 500 and S 600 without armouring. The units of both variants produced in August 1996.

In line with tradition, the five-seater saloons in the S-Class also available as armoured – with a choice of 5.0-liter V8 or V12 engine. Production of both armoured models began in 1992, one year after production start-up for the W 140 series.

improvements

In June 1996 the underwent further improvements. Now the automatic transmission with converter lock-up clutch and engine management was also for the six-cylinder models – as an option on the S and as standard on all other models. At the time the ASR acceleration skid system also became of the basic equipment on the six-cylinder Other innovations to note sidebags as standard for driver and passenger on all models, seat sensors to operate the front airbags, an “intelligent” rain that controlled the wiper in accordance with the volume of on the front windshield, and luggage in the trunk and front passenger Xenon headlamps with wash/wipe system and dynamic range adjustment were as optional equipment. Externally, the S-Class saloons had undergone modifications when they presented in June 1996; apparent were the satin-finish body components, now painted in the of the car rather than as previously in the colour.

Apart from detail improvements described in June 1996 a model in the S-Class came into The S 350 Turbodiesel was replaced by the S 300 Turbodiesel. In to its predecessor, the new diesel model a turbo engine with technology and intercooling. Engine was 20 kW (27 hp) higher, at 130 kW (177 hp); was increased by 20 Newton meters and over a broad range of speeds; exhaust emissions and consumption were much as a result of optimized combustion. The S 300 came as standard with the controlled five-speed automatic

From December 1996 the S 280 and S 320 with automatic transmission also equipped with the Stability Program ESP®. At the time a new innovation had its world as an additional active safety – Brake Assist BAS, was fitted as standard in all R 129 and W 140 models December 1996. Brake (BAS) was able to recognize braking situations and if required to brake power to a maximum quickly than was previously the thus shortening stopping considerably.

A landaulet for the Pope

In 1997 a further variant in the W 140 was produced: The long-wheelbase S 500 landaulet, a vehicle for Pope John II. The landaulet soft-top was operated to afford a clear view of the Father seated on his centrally thronal seat. It was also with folding seats for two

At the Paris Motor Show in 1998, the public was introduced to six saloons from the W 220 series, now succeeded the W 140 series after a of seven and a half years. production of the 140 models at the Sindelfingen was stopped at this point, and the armoured versions and the Pullman continued to be built. By September a total of 406,532 W 140 series were produced, of which units had diesel engines.

At the of its career and particularly in Germany, the ever S-Class did not have an time – despite the car’s qualities. A valedictory appeared in the Allgemeine Zeitung of August 25, under the headline: “The end of the patriarch. Sentimental farewell: The was always better than its This obituary written by Peters included the lines: other car offered such comfort and suspension, and no other car in size category could be in such safety and with agility at the same time. The was a giant that had been to dance on the points of its toes. [. ] The new promises to be lithe and lissom: of us are missing the fatter version

The W 140 series in the press

Auto, und Sport, Germany, volume on the Mercedes-Benz 600 SEL: “With such as these, there is to be said about the interior: The of space is almost wasteful, more so in the rear than in the since the opulent height in the is particularly apt for giving the impression of in a mobile living room. … It not be wrong here to describe as the world’s finest car – any less be to do Mercedes an injustice.”

Auto, und Sport, Germany, issue on the Mercedes-Benz 300 SE: “The size and of the new S-Class has become almost a issue. But in truth, on driving factors are less noticeable one might expect. On the contrary, it is how light and easy this automobile is to drive even narrow and winding country

Road #038; Track, December 1991, on the Mercedes-Benz 500

“At a 70-mph cruise, the 500 SEL has the honour of the quietest car we have ever – a mere 64 dBA. Helping in the department is double-pane side with dehumidified air sealed the panes. It’s said to fogging as well as absorb and no, Mercedes assures us, it isn’t a question some ask when see its thickness.”

mot, Germany, 13/1991, on the Mercedes-Benz 400 SEL: the new S-Class Mercedes once demonstrates its claim to have the automobile and to build the world’s car. When applied to the 400 one is forced to admit the claim is

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Mercedes-Benz S-Class, W 220 (1998 to 2005)

At the Paris Show in September 1998, the was introduced to six S-Class saloons in the W 220 which succeeded the W 140 series seven and a half years. It was delicate by direct comparison, for the designers succeeded in accommodating the feeling of space and presence a much more slender But unchanged was the same aspiration to set the for automotive design as a whole. On its the new S-Class displayed over 30 innovations, including the DISTRONIC intelligent cruise control, system with integrated warning and automatic cylinder in the V8 engine of the S 500. And later the pioneering safety system


When the W 220 was presented in 1998, Dr. Zetsche, then Board at Daimler-Benz AG with responsibility for made the comment: “In total, the new derives its desirability from the virtues of a Mercedes-Benz – by associating and emotion. Thanks to its familiar of comfort and safety it guarantees a of calm, and with its elegant and well-balanced driving characteristics it sheer enjoyment.”

When the W 220 was launched, there were two body and three engine The customers were given a between the saloon with a wheelbase (2965 millimetres) and the with a wheelbase 120 millimetres (3085 millimetres). For each there were three available. The S 320 had a 3.2 litre V6 engine kW/224 hp); the S 430 a V8 engine delivered 205 kW (279 hp); and the V8 in the S 500 provided 225 kW (306 hp). All units offered optimum thanks to their three-valve and dual ignition. Dual also made it possible to the volume of exhaust gas fed back the engine, with a consequent impact on emissions.

Automatic shut-off

Mercedes-Benz S 500 306hp W220

The newly developed cylinder shut-off turned the S 500 temporarily into a four-cylinder – a which had a dramatic impact on consumption without compromising on torque or quietness. To put that figures, when four of the cylinders were shut off partial load conditions, fuel consumption (New Driving Cycle) for the S 500 was cut by an average of percent. Indeed, thanks to the cylinder shut-off even economies were to be achieved on driving circumstances: At a constant 120 gasoline consumption fell by 13 percent, and at a constant 90 km/h by as as 15 percent. The automatic cylinder was activated whenever the V8 engine was to deliver only a fraction of its and torque – for example, in city on trunk roads or for steady driving at moderate speed.

At the Motor Show in 1999, a new member, the CL coupe, celebrated its premiere. It featured for the first as standard the innovative suspension Active Body Control which represented a hitherto optimum balance of sportiness and A system based on signals sensors and using special cylinders on the axles, ABC compensated entirely for any rolling and pitching of the body when moving cornering or braking. Two engines available: The CL 600 had the twelve-cylinder unit 270 kW (367 hp), and the CL 500 the 225 kW (306 hp) V8

The IAA Frankfurt Motor Show in presented the twelve-cylinder saloon S 600 and the six and diesel versions, the S 320 CDI and S 400 CDI. The engines were revised.

The S 600 was available as a long-wheelbase version. The developed V12 engine was the same as the used in the CL. It was fitted as standard such technical innovations as cylinder shut-off, phased-control ignition, three-valve technology and AC and delivered 270 kW (367 hp) with torque of 530 Newton meters at That took the S 600 from 0 to 100 in 6.3 seconds and gave it an electronically top speed of 250 km/h.

The S 320 CDI was powered by an six-cylinder unit with diesel injection, VNT turbocharger Nozzle Turbine) and four-valve It generated 145 kW (197 hp) and at 1800/min maximum torque of 470 Newton In the new European driving cycle the saloon used just litres of fuel for every 100 giving it a range of almost kilometres with a full (88 litres).

A bi-turbo diesel

The V8 engine bi-turbo system in the S 400 CDI marked a milestone in the long history of compression-ignition engines. From a of 3,996 cubic centimetres the CDI unit developed 175 kW (238 hp) of at 4000/min. Maximum torque – an 560 Newton meters – was available earlier, at between 1800 and As for fuel consumption, the advanced injection engine here far superior to comparable gasoline with a value of just litres per 100 kilometres (NEDC consumption).

All W 220-series engine were equipped as standard five-speed automatic transmission also featured two driving slip-controlled torque converter and an advanced lightweight design. meant that even the made a major contribution to economy. Daimler-Benz had taken of the five-speed automatic system to a new of development with its so-called shift’ function: While it was possible to select the positions “R”, “N” and “D” as usual, in position “D” the could engage driving 4 through 1 by gently pushing the lever to the right or left. The gear selection was monitored by the electronics, which only out shift commands that lay in the engine speed range. A in the instrument cluster kept the informed of the current shift

The W 220 series made advances in all of automotive design. As such, the W 220 weighed over 300 kilograms than its predecessors with the equipment options – one of the most conditions for reducing fuel and increasing agility. Thanks to design, exemplary aerodynamic (drag coefficient Cd = 0.27) and V6 and V8 engines, the W 220-series vehicles somewhere between 12 and 17 percent on depending on the specific engine, predecessor models.

In spite of a lighter body the designers managed to further optimize for vehicle occupants. Window came as standard and stretched A-pillar to C-pillar, sidebags fitted to all doors and great was paid in the area of body to reduce the risk of injury in the of a side impact. Other safety innovations included force limiters for front and outer seats in the rear, passenger airbag with gas generator and an automatic front seat recognition system.

level of ride comfort

its electronically controlled air suspension to and rear axles, the S-Class up a new dimension in ride comfort. body vibrations, an important for suspension comfort, were as as 14 percent lower than the for the previous top-of-the-range Mercedes-Benz. came as standard, and combined the air and Adaptive Damping System ADS a system that automatically adjustments to the shock absorbers to account of the condition of the road load or driving style. As a the saloon was able to offer a degree of agility and cornering – important factors for driving at the highest level, and supported by the newly developed four-link suspension. The Electronic Stability ESP® was also a standard feature in the S-Class. And with the intelligent cruise control DISTRONIC, available from 1999, ventilated luxury and the innovative multi-contour backrest automatic massage function, in the S-Class became an even relaxing and stress-free experience.

An Cockpit Management and Data – in short: COMAND – combined the of car radio, CD and cassette player, system, telephone, navigation TV receiver (available from 1999) and the clock times, offering the epitome of user-friendly Moreover, buttons on the steering of the new S-Class enabled the driver to individual settings and call up items of journey data. appeared on the clearly laid out display in the instrument cluster. model year 2002, was fitted as standard to all models in the and in the top-of-the-range S 600 it was coupled as standard the navigation system.

Model of the W 220 series in autumn 2002 the 4MATIC electronically controlled drive for the six-cylinder and eight-cylinder models. Also available as an was the Active Body Control system ABC (standard in the S 600), used in the CL coupe, which body suspension to current conditions in a split second. In way the system was able to reduce movements appreciably, dramatically lateral roll of the twelve-cylinder on cornering and offering a much level of safety in rapid manoeuvres compared with equipped with conventional gear technology. New to the range was the S 600, which put all others in the and deceived the competition: the bi-turbo V12 developed 500 hp (368 kW) and torque of 800 metres.

PRE-SAFE® prevention

Top of the of pioneering new high-tech innovations 2001 has been the PRE-SAFE® occupant protection system, which Mercedes-Benz launched a new era of safety. PRE-SAFE® is capable of an impending accident in advance and the vehicle accordingly. Such passenger protection measures for example, split-second tensioning of belts, forcing driver and passenger to adopt the optimum position ahead of an imminent so that airbags can function maximum effectiveness upon At the same time PRE-SAFE® the front passenger seat and adjustable individual rear into the optimum position and closes the sunroof should the go into a skid.

Discreet design modifications also made to the visual of the S-Class from model 2003, lending even emphasis to the agile and elegant of the saloon. One example of this was the bumper, which now featured a new of lower air intake that the body a broader and even powerful appearance. The radiator was also modified, with giving it greater height and it at a steeper angle than The most important element of the facelift, however, were the lines of the headlamps, which the saloon added brilliance as a of their state-of-the-art clear lenses and high-gloss reflectors.

The dynamic multi-contour seat was the ultimate in state-of-the-art seat Equipped with several air that automatically inflate or depending on the situation, it gave driver and front passenger side stability on cornering. control was the responsibility of a computer into the seat, which was of computing data such as angle, lateral acceleration and speed in a fraction of a second, in to vary the inflation pressure and of the air chambers as appropriate to each In a left-hand bend, for example, the pumped more air into the air on the right-hand side of the backrest, improving lateral support for

Fall 2001 saw the market of the W 220-series Pullman variant, a wheelbase one metre longer that of the conventional long The additional space benefited the passengers and allowed a vis-à-vis arrangement. The Pullman was available either the 5.0-liter eight-cylinder (225 kW/306 hp) or the V12 unit kW/367 hp). The basis of the was a reinforced body shell and running gear.

Production of the W 220 was scheduled to end in late 2005 to way for the W 221 series, which once continued to set new standards – as befits the from Mercedes-Benz. By December the Sindelfingen plant had turned out a of 484,683 saloons from the W 220 The most successful model this generation was the S 500 long with unit numbers of 108 823

The W 220 series in the press

Frankfurter Zeitung, Germany, October 13, on the S-Class:

“The saloons a thoroughly imposing presence, being lighter and slightly in dimensions, and they display an and manoeuvrability we have never seen in this class of At the same time, there is a of wheel location and responsiveness of that one would otherwise only associate with compromises to ride comfort. The air that comes as standard in all seems to turn the Mercedes into a flying carpet can recognize turbulence before it has time to hit. Every should have that popular sign in the rear Beware – boss driving!”

Motor und Sport, Germany, 25/1998, on the Mercedes-Benz S 320:

and ADS are also part of the package gives the large saloon manageable and nimble handling without unstable body It is supported by precise speed-sensitive steering, which allows the saloon to be steered like a car.”

Road #038; USA, January 1999, on the S 500: “In the meantime [until the S 600 the S 500 is quite a worthy flagship: quiet, stable and yet commendably Whereas the previous S‑Class shrank the faster it was driven, in a this new one is already preshrunk; its chassis dynamics evident at any its comfort undiminished from of the car it replaces.”

Auto Zeitung, issue 4/2003, in a comparative between the Mercedes-Benz S 600 and BMW 760 Li: “It’s to believe that such an might meet its match. But the Mercedes V12 puts the BMW unit in the The sheer power of its 800 Newton and 500 hp facilitates even better performance at low engine speeds compromising its smooth running Two turbochargers produce such thrust that the 5-speed transmission seldom needs to the gear ratio even at high speeds. This V12 is short of sensational.”

Mercedes-Benz S 500 306hp W220
Mercedes-Benz S 500 306hp W220

interesting

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