Electric Vehicle Battery University

14 Апр 2015 | Author: | No comments yet »
car Smart Fortwo EV

Electric Vehicle

Cars electric powertrains have around for more than 100 At the turn of the century, a car buyer had choices of propulsion system: steam, and internal combustion engine, of which the IC engine was the common.

The electric cars to the upper class and the vehicles finished with fancy and expensive materials. Although were higher in price the steam and gasoline-powered vehicles, the chose the electric car for its quiet and ride over the vibration, and high maintenance of gasoline-powered Best of all, the electric (EV) did not require changing Back then, the knuckle wrist-wrenching chore of shifting was the most dreaded task for a gasoline-powered car. Nor did the EV need cranking to start the motor, a the upper class did not want to be doing. Since the only roads were in town, the range of the EV was no problem, and most of the was local commuting. Production of the EV in 1912 and continued until the

The battery of choice for the EV was lead For an added fee, the buyer fit the Detroit Electric with a (NiFe) battery, a technology Edison promoted. NiFe had a voltage of 1.2V, was robust and endure overcharging and repeated discharging. Being a good Edison continued to promote over lead acid by its good performance at subfreezing and hot Then in 1914, a devastating destroyed the Edison factory and the for this battery began to On a purely technological level, provided only a slightly specific energy to lead and was expensive to manufacture. In addition, the performed poorly at low temperatures and the was 2040 percent a month, higher than lead

The Detroit Electric, one of the most EVs then, was said to get 130km (80 between battery charges. Its top was 32km/h (20mph), a pace adequate for driving. Physicians and were the main buyers. Edison, John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and Ford, the wife of Henry drove Detroit Electrics. 1 shows Thomas Edison his 1914 Detroit Electric

Figure 1:


Thomas Edison a 1914 Detroit Electric, 47

Thomas Edison felt nickel-iron was superior to lead for the EV and promoted his more expensive

Courtesy of National Museum of History

Henry Ford’s and cost-cutting measures in 1912 not the only reason for the shift gasoline-powered cars. The invention of the motor, the need to travel distances, and the discovery of Texas oil made the IC engine more and affordable to the general public.

The EV a thing of the past until the 1990s when the California Air Board (CARB) began for more fuel-efficient and lower-emission It was the CARB zero-emission policy prompted General Motors to the EV1. Available for lease 19961999, the EV1 initially ran on an 18kWh acid battery. The lead was later replaced with a NiMH pack. Although the gave an impressive driving of 260km (160 miles), the EV1 was not problems. Manufacturing costs to three times the cost of a gasoline-powered car, and in 2001 changed the CARB requirements, prompted General Motors to the EV1, to the dismay of many The 2006 documentary film Who the Electric Car? gives a impression of government-initiated programs for transportation.

To match the range of an IC-powered the EV needs a battery capable of 2540kWh. This is twice the size of a PHEV and 10 times of the HEV. The electro-chemical battery is not the expense added to the EV; the power to manage the battery make up a part of the vehicle cost. An EV a battery is roughly the same as a traditional gasoline-powered car. 2 shows the battery of the Nissan as part of the under-chassis installation.

2: Cutaway battery of Nissan electric vehicle. The Leaf a 24kWh lithium-ion battery a city driving range of (100 miles). The battery under the floor of the car, 272kg (600lb) and is estimated to $15,600 (2010).

Courtesy of Motors

A valid concern the EV is the limited driving range, in cold and hot weather. Designed to go (100 miles) on a charge, a BMW E traveled about half distance in cold weather running out of power. Additional is drawn to heat the cabin and performance drops in cold While thermal technologies are advances, achieving a comfortable environment remains an issue most EV designs. To conserve EV drivers use the heat and air-conditioning and drive in a reasonable manner.

The Mini E takes 68 hours to charge the battery on a regular outlet. High-power outlets can reduce the charge time to 35 and high-power public fill-up can charge a battery in two hours. In cases it’s the available outlet and not the battery that charge times. Charging a battery in six minutes, as some manufacturers might claim would require 400kW of An ordinary 115VAC electrical provides only 1.5kW, and a 40A kitchen stove outlet 9kW. (The electric stove is often the household that draws the most It feeds off a 230VAC, 40-ampere

Car manufacturer Tesla Motors on building EVs that generate emissions with very performance. Its electric Roadster a zero-to-96km (zero-to-60 mp) acceleration of 3.9 The 7,000 Li-ion cells 53kWh of electrical power and a driving range of 320km miles). Liquid cooling the cells from exceeding 35C To achieve the five-year warranty, charges the Li-cobalt cells to 4.10V instead of 4.20V/cell. The circuits inhibit charging at temperatures. At $130,000, this car heads and becomes a discussion however, the $40,000 cost of a battery could cause for long-term Tesla owners.

A battery for the electric powertrain costs between $1,000 and per kWh. According to The Boston Group (BCG), relief is in BCG claims that the price of will fall to $750 per kWh the next decade. Meanwhile, for consumer electronics are only per kWh. High volume, manufacturing, lower safety and shorter calendar life this low price possible. BCG that Li-ion batteries for the will eventually match consumer prices, and the cost of a battery will drop to $6,000 from $16,000.

The decrease in battery prices is to occur between now and 2020, a more gradual decline According to BCG, the anticipated life of the battery will be years. E-One Moli a manufacturer of lithium-ion cells for tools and electric vehicles, out that the cost of Li-ion can be to $400 per kWh in high volume, the peripheral electronics managing the including heating and cooling, remain high, essentially the price of a pack. Reductions are possible here, and E-One Energy predicts that the will only make up 20 of the cost of an EV battery in five These forecasts are speculative, and analysts express concern the carmakers may not be able to achieve the cost target without a breakthrough in battery technology. say that the current battery is 3 to 5 times too high to appeal to the market.

On the surface, driving on electricity is than burning gasoline but low fuel prices, uncertainty the battery’s service life, with unknown abuse and high replacement costs, reduce the incentive for buyers to from a proven concept to an vehicle. If a driver wants the range between fill-ups is achievable with a gasoline-powered battery would need a of 75kWh according to Technology Electric and Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (EV/PHEV). At an estimated price tag per kWh, such a would cost over and weigh nearly a ton.

Roadmap compares the energy and cost of gasoline versus propulsion as follows: An EV requires 150 and 200Wh per km depending on speed and At a consumption of 200Wh/km and an electricity of $0.15 per kWh, the energy to drive an EV translates to $0.03 per km. compares to $0.06 per km for an equal-size car and $0.05 per km for diesel. The price exclude equipment costs, and eventual replacement of the battery and IC

To prepare for the EV market, researchers and manufacturers have invested resources to develop better technologies, and many are taking of generous government incentives. But is a danger. For the sake of optimal energy, some start-up are experimenting with aggressive concepts using volatile that compromise safety. may push the envelope by announcing advances, emphasizing only the and squelching the cons. Such will get media attention and venture capitalists to invest, hype contributes little in a solution that will existing battery technologies.

The battery will determine the of the EV, and until improvements are achieved in of higher specific energy, service life and lower the electric powertrain may be limited to a market. While governments large sums in the hope of current battery technologies, we realize that the electrochemical has limitations. This was made when motorists tested current and future models electric powertrains and attained ranges that were less than estimated. 3 lists a rundown of range and times. The electric cars tested in real-life conditions on over mountain passes and winter conditions in 2010.

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